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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The accumulation of cadmium from aqueous systems by various green microalgae was investigated with focus, on Chlorella regularis as it is known to concentrate large amounts of heavy metals. The amount of cadmium absorbed by Chlorella cells was rapid during the first 30 min following addition of cadmium and then continued to be absorbed more slowly. The uptake of cadmium by Chlorella was not markedly affected by temperature or metabolic inhibitors. Most of the cadmium absorbed by Chlorella cells was easily released by EDTA. The amount of cadmium absorbed differed markedly with the pH value of the solution and was inhibited by the presence of other divalent cations. Heat-killed Chlorella cells took up cadmium to a greater degree than living ones. From these results, it was considered that the uptake of cadmium into Chlorella cells was not directly mediated by metabolic processes, rather it appeared completely dependent upon physico-chemical adsorption on the cell surface. The ability to accumulate cadmium was species specific and found to be (in decreasing order); Chlamydomonas reinhardtii〉Chlorella regularis〉 Scenedesmus bijuga〉Scenedesmus obliquus〉Chlamydomonas angulosa〉 Scenedesmus chlorelloides.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: insulin ; protease inhibitors ; intestinal absorption ; hypoglycemic effect ; regional difference
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of protease inhibitors on the intestinal absorption of insulin were investigated in situ in closed small and large intestinal loops in rats, and the stability of insulin was examined in homoge-nates of the small and large intestine. The intestinal absorption of insulin was evaluated by its hypoglycemic effect. When insulin alone was administered into small or large intestinal loops, no marked hypoglycemic response was observed in either region. Of the coadministered protease inhibitors, soybean trypsin inhibitor (1.5, 10 mg/ml) marginally promoted insulin absorption from the large intestine, whereas aprotinin (10 mg/ml) did to a moderate degree. However, a significant hypoglycemic effect was obtained following large intestinal administration of insulin with 20 mM of Na-glycocholate, camostat mesilate and bacitracin, when compared with the controls. In contrast, we found little hypoglycemic effect following small intestinal coadministration of insulin with these protease inhibitors. In the stability experiment, bacitracin, camostat mesilate and Na-glycocholate were effective in reducing insulin degradation in both small and large intestinal homogenates. It was found that the reduction in the proteolytic rate of insulin was related to the decrease in plasma glucose concentration by these protease inhibitors in the large intestine. These findings suggest that coadministration of protease inhibitors would be useful for improving the large intestinal absorption of insulin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-6025
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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