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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Keywords: Stenogastrinae ; tegumental glands ; male patrolling ; gastral dispay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Males ofAnischnogaster laticeps andStenogaster concinna possess clusters of glandular class III cells (Noirot and Quennedey, 1974) under the anterior edge of the 3rd gastral tergite. Their morphology is described with the help of histological sections and SEM investigation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Keywords: Stenogastrinae ; Anischnogaster ; social behaviour ; colony biology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Level of social organization, adult behaviour, size and development of the brood in three species ofAnischnogaster are described. The normal colony size in all the three species was one female per nest, and colony size never exceeded two females per nest. The social interactions, which were only observed in one species, did not include any marked dominance behaviour, but there was clear caste differentiation, with the older female guarding the nest while the younger female foraged for food. InAnischnogaster sp. A only some eggs and larvae have abdominal secretion, while no secretion at all was found on the eggs and larvae ofA. laticeps. In spite of this, the Dufour's gland was found to be well developed. The significance of this is discussed. Females ofA. laticeps were found to fall into two groups distinguished by the length of the sting. The larvae seem quite similar to those of other Stenogastrinae and have, apparently, only four instars.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Keywords: Key words:Polistes, geographic distribution, colonization, adaptability.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary: Polistes dominulus, a common Polistes species with Old World distribution, is now invading the United States. We discuss those characteristics of P. dominulus that may explain its successful establishment in its new American environment. A versatile diet, the ability to colonize new environments and a short development time of the immature brood might have played an important role in the rapid spread in P. dominulus.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume Le parasite socialSulcopolistes atrimandibularis envahit le nid dePolistes biglumis bimaculatus un certain temps après sa fondation mais avant l'éclosion de la première ouvrière hôte, quand la fondatrice est encore seule. Le comportement des parasites et des hôtes a été observé dans de petites cages en laboratoire. Les femellesS. atrimandibularis envahissent pacifiquement les colonies dePolistes et ne réagissent pas aux attaques initiales de la fondatrice. Le parasite évite les contacts avec la reine hôte quand elle se trouve sur le nid, mais devient plus actif et dominant après quelques heures. De cette façon, le parasite subjugue la reine hôte sans l'attaquer. Il est possible que le succès de cette invasion extrêmement prudente soit dû à une forte composante pheromonale. Tant la période d'usurpation que la stratégie non agressive de l'invasion du nid sont supposés être une adaptation au climat de montagne sous lequel ces espèces vivent.
    Notes: Summary The social parasiteSulcopolistes atrimandibularis invades the nest ofPolistes biglumis bimaculatus after nest initiation, during the pre-emergence colony stage, when only the foundress is present. The colony behaviour of the parasites and the hosts was observed in small glass boxes in the laboratory. S. atrimandibularis females passively invadePolistes colonies and do not react to the initial attacks by the foundresses. At first, the parasite avoids contact with the host queen when she is on the nest, but after a few hours she becomes more active and dominant. In this way, the parasite subdues the host queen without fighting her. It is possible that the success of this invasion process is due to a strong pheromonal component. Both the timing of usurpation and the non aggressive strategy of nest invasion are thought to be adaptations to the mountain climate where the two species live.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume On décrit pour la première fois chez le mâle deParischnogaster nigricans serrei (Du Buysson) etP. mellyi (Saussure), des glandes tégumentaires monocellulaires situées au bord antérieur du troisième tergite gastral. Le rôle de la sécrétion produite par ces glandes pourrait être lié à l'exhibition de bandes blanches abdominales relatives à la stratégie d'accouplement de ces espèces.
    Notes: Summary Tegumental glands, described for the first time, clustered along the anterior margin of the third gastral tergite of maleParischnogaster nigricans serrei (Du Buysson) andP. mellyi (Saussure) produce a secretion whose function may be connected with the white stripes display and mating system of these species.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume ChezParischnogaster nigricans serrei le nid est fondé par une seule guêpe. Quelquefois la fondatrice peut être flanquée, de temps en temps, d'autres femelles ou de mâles. La phase de nid initial commence par la première operculation. La fondatrice se repose sur les cellules operculées et réduit ses sorties. L'activité de construction du nid, de ponte, et le développement ovarien de la fondatrice subissent un fléchissement. La phase de colonie jeune est caractérisée par l'éclosion de femelles et par un rapide agrandissement du nid. La fondatrice se consacre aux activités sur le nid et ses ovaires grandissent. Dans la phase de colonie entre deux âges commence l'éclosion des mâles. Toutes les femelles sont fécondées entre le 20e et le 50e jour après l'éclosion et les femelles fécondées présentent des ovaires plus développés que les femelles non fécondées de même âge. Quelques femelles restent sur le nid comme femelles subordonnées ou de remplacement, tandis que d'autres fondent de nouveaux nids ou usurpent d'autres colonies. Dans les colonies mûres on trouve de nombreuses femelles pondeuses en puissance. Dans les colonies vieilles l'équilibre est très instable et la plupart des individus peut abandonner la colonie à la suite de perturbations d'origine interne ou externe. On revient ainsi à une phase précédente du cycle colonial.
    Notes: Summary InParischnogaster nigricans serrei nests are usually founded by single wasps. Old nests are often reused. Sometimes foundations can be joined by males or other females for brief periods. The initial nest phase begins with the closure of the first pupal cell. The foundress usually rests on the closed cell and reduces her journeys. Nest construction, egg laying and the ovarian development of the foundress undergo a reduction. The phase of the young colony is characterized by the emergence of females, rapid growth, specialization of the foundress in nest activities and the increase of her ovarian size. In the middle aged colony males begin to emerge. Females are all fertilized between 20 and 50 days from emergence; fertilized females have ovaries more developed than unfertilized ones of the same age. Some females remain on nests behaving as subordinate and substitution females, while others found new nests or usurp other colonies. In the mature colonies potential egg layers become frequent. In old colonies equilibrium seems to be very unstable and internal or external perturbations may cause the abandonment of the colony by most individuals and the return to a previous phase of the colony cycle.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume Le vol en patrouille des mâles de quelques espèces de guêpes Stenogastrinae appartenant au genreLiostenogaster, Metischnogaster etEustenogaster a été observé en nature et en captivité. Les mâles deL. flavolineata effectuent des vols rapides et s'arrêtent sur des perchoirs où ils frottent leurs tergites abdominaux. Les mâles deM. drewseni volent parmi les clairières en allongeant leur abdomen pour montrer des bandes blanches qui sont sur la partie antérieure des tergites abdominaux. Les mâles deEustenogaster sp. volent «en patrouille» sur la végétation et s'arrêtent sur des perchoirs avec leurs abdomens dresses. Les structures anatomiques probablement reliées à la production et la libération de phéromones durant le vol en patrouille, ont été trouvées et décrites dans toutes les espèces examinées.
    Notes: Summary The patrolling flights of the males of some species of Stenogastrine wasps belonging to the generaLiostenogaster, Metischnogaster, andEustenogaster have been observed both in the field and in capivity. The males ofL. flavolineata perform rapid flights stopping on perches where they drag their abdominal tergites. Males ofM. drewseni hover in forest clearings stretching their abdomens every now and then to display whitish bands on the anterior part of their gastral tergites. Males ofEustenogaster sp. hover on vegetation and stop on perches with their abdomens raised. Anatomical structures, probably tied with the production and release of pheromones during the patrolling flights, have been found and are described in all the species examined.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Keywords: Key words:Polistes, epicuticular hydrocarbons, nestmate recognition, discriminant analysis, colony signature.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary: An experimental analysis was conducted to determine if chemicals from the cuticle of a social wasp are used in nestmate recognition. These chemicals were also subsequently identified. Laboratory colonies of Polistes biglumis bimaculatus were presented with (1) dead nestmates and dead non‐nestmates, (2) dead nestmates and dead non‐nestmates that were subjected to solvent‐washing to eliminate epicuticular compounds and (3) dead nestmates and dead non‐nestmates that were treated again with extracts of nestmates or non-nestmates. Behavioural responses (acceptance or rejection of introduced wasps) by colony residents showed that they were able to discriminate between dead nestmates and dead non‐nestmates and that they used epicuticular substances to perform the discrimination process. The GC‐MS analyses of the epicuticular compounds showed that they consisted of a blend of hydrocarbons. Multivariate analysis of individual hydrocarbon profiles of wasps from different colonies showed that colonies had distinct hydrocarbon profiles.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Keywords: Key words: Colony foundation, Belonogaster, Polistinae.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary: The development of colony foundations of Belonogaster juncea juncea(Fab.) was studied both in the field (Messa quarter, Yaoundé, Cameroun) and in captivity (University of Florence, Italy). Colonies were first initiated by single females who could be joined by other foundresses (2 to 8) coming, in their great majority, from the same maternal colony as the initial foundress female. The co-foundresses remained faithful to one single colony or joined other colonies originating from the same maternal colony and remained, preferentially, on those with the more advanced immature brood. In most cases the nest starter turned out to be the dominant female and her position was usurped in only four cases. Only 25 % of the haplometrotic foundations reached the post-emergence phase while it was reached by 56.7 % of the associative foundations. Only the latter succeeded in producing sexuals. The division of labour between associated females is similar to that observed in other social wasps with dominant individuals who are seldom absent from the nest, lay eggs and perform abdominal vibrations and subordinate individuals that are active foragers. The possibility of a swarming colony foundation in this species is briefly discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Keywords: Polybioides ; Ropalidiini ; Polistinae ; caste differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Queens ofPolybioides tabidus differ from workers of the same species in the presence of very much longer bristles on the eyes and head and in the size of some morphological characters. The presence/absence of eye bristles in queens/workers of P. tabidus is the first qualitative morphological caste difference reported in the Polistinae.
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