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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Metabotropic glutamate receptors ; 2R ; 4R-4-Aminopyrrolidine-2 ; 4-dicarboxylate ; Somatosensory thalamus ; Presynaptic inhibition ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Recordings were made from single neurones responsive to somatosensory input in the ventrobasal thalamus of the anaesthetised rat. GABAergic afferent inhibition arising from the thalamic reticular nucleus was evoked using a condition-test vibrissal stimulation paradigm. Local iontophoretic application of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist 2R,4R-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC) in the vicinity of the recorded neurones produced a reduction of the afferent inhibition (from 78±3.0% to 25±5.3%), presumably via a presynaptic mechanism. This effect could be antagonised by LY307452, a known group II mGluR antagonist. In contrast, two selective group I mGluR agonists, (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) and trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (tADA), were without effect on the GABAergic inhibition. These data show that group II but not group I mGluRs can have a significant role in the modulation of GABAergic afferent inhibition in the ventrobasal thalamus. This could be of importance in the control of sensory discriminative processes and functions of sleep, arousal and seizure generation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 67 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the fatty acid composition of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus was investigated. Individuals (n = 435) were fed three natural diets (Gulf menhaden Brevoortia patronus, brown shrimp Farfantapenaeus aztecus and Atlantic brief squid Lolliguncula brevis) that had significantly different proximate composition, energy density and PUFA compositions for 40 days. Diets were characterized as containing: high lipid, high protein, high energy and low PUFA (fish-based), low lipid, low protein, low energy, moderate PUFA (shrimp-based), and low lipid, high protein, moderate energy and high PUFA levels (squid-based), respectively. Specimens were collected at days 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 to evaluate rate of dietary fatty acid composition in tissues. Two-source mixing models were used to calculate dietary fatty acid accumulation in consumer tissues. Results indicated that juvenile red drum incorporated an average of 35% dietary PUFAs after 5 days. Although relative biomass and dietary proximate composition had an effect upon the dietary fatty acid contribution, red drum averaged 91% incorporation of the five most prevalent PUFAs [18 : 2 (n − 6), 20 : 4 (n − 6), 20 : 5 (n − 3), 22 : 5 (n − 3) and 22 : 6 (n − 3)] across all diets after 40 days. Growth varied as a function of diet and rates were higher for individuals fed the squid diet than those fed shrimp or fish diets primarily due to increased levels of protein and PUFAs [including 22 : 6 (n − 3); 25·8%] in the diet. Red drum fed squid exhibited the greatest increase in average dietary fatty acid contribution by day 5, a trend that continued for the duration of the experiment. Since PUFA composition in red drum was significantly influenced by diet in as few as 5 days and almost completely incorporated into body tissues after 40 days, results from this study support the premise that fatty acids (especially PUFAs) are promising dietary indicators and may be useful for future studies examining trophic relationships of estuarine and marine fishes.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 209 (1966), S. 755-757 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THE interaction of the solar corpuscular stream with JL the Earth's magnetic field has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental investigations; but despite the great volume of data provided by artificial satellites and space probes, the structure of the magneto -sphere and the ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The local synaptic connectivity in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus (SC) was assessed following retinal ganglion cell axonal regeneration through a peripheral nerve graft into the SC of Lister Hooded rats, using in vitro brain slice techniques. Repair was effected between the ipsilateral eye and SC, following bilateral lesion of optic nerves and ablation of ipsilateral occipital cortex. Deafferentation surgery alone resulted in a complete loss of synaptic potentials of extrinsic origin, once both retinal and cortical inputs were removed. Stimulation of graft insertion sites elicited synaptic responses comprising monosynaptic and network-mediated depolarising events. This activity, together with similar spontaneous bursts of depolarising events and action potential firing, was generated by the activation of non-N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. This behaviour may reflect the development of a local recurrent synaptic connectivity following the repair surgery, as both evoked and spontaneous responses developed into large long-lasting bursts of excitatory activity when inhibition mediated by GABA receptors was blocked. These results suggest that the ultrastructural changes in the superficial layers of the SC resulting from deafferentation are reflected functionally at the synaptic level in the target structure even after repair. Such changes are likely to compromise the ability of the target structure to function normally during information processing. Therefore, although axons regenerating along peripheral nerve grafts can make functional synaptic connections, their efficacy in activating the target structure will probably be compromised by local changes in synaptic connectivity.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDArs) may facilitate experience-dependent changes in the visual system. Early sensory experience has an influence over the production of the molecular components from which NMDArs are assembled, and thereby alters the properties of functional receptors. Using the antagonists d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5) and 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP), which have some selectivity for different variants of the NMDAr, we demonstrate that visual deprivation (by dark rearing) has functional consequences for NMDArs in the superior colliculus. An increase in the sensitivity of visual responses to AP5 in dark-reared rats indicated that NMDArs were more important for visual transmission in these individuals. We also observed a relative change in the efficacy of the antagonists against the visual responses of normal versus dark-reared rats. AP5 reduced the visual responses of both groups, but CPP was ineffective against visual responses after dark rearing. In the same neurons, CPP blocked NMDA induced activity indicating that molecular adaptations of NMDArs are specific to those synapses mediating visual activity.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Feulgen reaction ; Cell cycle ; Chromosomes ; Interphase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The Feulgen reaction has been utilized to localize DNA in nuclei throughout the cycle of mouse duodenal crypt cells using Epon-embedded 1 μm thick sections. The observed changes indicate that the 12.3 h long mitotic cycle of these cells can be subdivided into eleven stages, seven of which take place during the interphase. Computer measurements of Feulgen-stained nuclei and previous radioautographic studies indicate that DNA synthesis begins during stage I and ends during stage IV. The staining pattern shows no distinctive feature in the nuclei of the 1.5 h long stage I. Thereafter, marked changes occur during the rest of the interphase - that is during the 6.3 h that precede karyokinesis and the 3.5 h that follow it. Thus, at stage II the background of the nuclei darkens; at stage III, there appear stained threads interpreted as densifying chromosomes and dots interpreted as chromomeres, both of which thicken from 0.2 to 0.4 μm; at stage IV they further thicken to about 0.5 μm and at stage V, to about 0.7 μm. At this stage, which approximately corresponds to prophase, the intensely stained, discrete dots are localized within the less intensely stained sausage-shaped threads. As the breakup of the nuclear envelope introduces stage VI, whose early part corresponds to prometaphase, the intensely stained dots become close to one another within the threads and eventually fuse. The staining of the threads thus intensifies, and, by the late part of the stage that corresponds to metaphase, they have become the homogeneously dense metaphase chromosomes. At stage VII, the anaphase chromosomes reach each pole where they associate into a compact mass. This mass remains solid at stage VIII but gradually dissociates during stages IX, X, and XI as chromosomes are disassembled. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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