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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The absence of adenosine A2A receptors, or its pharmacological inhibition, has neuroprotective effects. Experimental data suggest that glial A2A receptors participate in neurodegeneration induced by A2A receptor stimulation. In this study we have investigated the effects of A2A receptor stimulation on control and activated glial cells. Mouse cortical mixed glial cultures (75% astrocytes, 25% microglia) were treated with the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CGS21680 potentiated lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release and NO synthase-II expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. CGS21680 potentiation of lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release was suppressed by the A2A receptor antagonist ZM-241385 and did not occur on mixed glial cultures from A2A receptor-deficient mice. In mixed glial cultures treated with LPS + CGS21680, the NO synthase-II inhibitor 1400W abolished NO production, and NO synthase-II immunoreactivity was observed only in microglia. Binding experiments demonstrated the presence of A2A receptors on microglial but not on astroglial cultures. However, the presence of astrocytes was necessary for CGS21680 potentiating effect. In light of the reported neurotoxicity of microglial NO synthase-II and the neuroprotection of A2A receptor inhibition, these data suggest that attenuation of microglial NO production could contribute to the neuroprotection afforded by A2A receptor antagonists.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Several stimuli result in glial activation and induce nitric oxide (NO) production in microglial and astroglial cells. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been widely used to achieve glial activation in vitro, and several studies show that both microglial and, to a lesser extent, astroglial cell cultures produce NO after LPS treatment. However, NO production in endotoxin-treated astrocyte cultures is controversial. We characterized NO production in microglial, astroglial and mixed glial cell cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide, measured as nitrite accumulation in the culture media. We also identified the NO-producing cells by immunocytochemistry, using specific markers for the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) isoform, microglial and astroglial cells. Only microglial cells showed iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, contaminating microglial cells were responsible for NO production in the secondary astrocyte cultures. We then analysed the effect of astrocytes on NO production by microglial cells using microglial–astroglial cocultures, and we observed that this production was clearly enhanced in the presence of astroglial cells. Soluble factors released by astrocytes did not appear to be directly responsible for such an effect, whereas nonsoluble factors present in the cell membrane of LPS-treated astrocytes could account, at least in part, for this enhancement.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and the phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) are especially abundant in the mammalian CNS, where they have been implicated repeatedly in different neuronal functions. CaMKII is a holoenzyme that is likely to be constituted of both homomultimers and heteromultimers, CaMKIIα and CaMKIIβ being the most abundant subunits in the brain. CaN is a heterodimer constituted of a catalytic subunit (CaN A) and a regulatory subunit (CaN B), and CaN Aα is the predominant form in the brain. We studied the expression of CaMKIIα, CaMKIIβ, and CaN Aα subunit messenger RNAs in the mouse hippocampus at different times after the administration of a convulsant dose of kainic acid. CaMKIIα and CaN A immunohistochemistry was also performed. We observed a transient decrease in the three messenger RNAs in the kainic acid-treated mice, peaking at 5 or 24 h of treatment. The effect had disappeared completely 8 days after treatment. No significant alterations in CaMKII or CaN immunolabelling were observed in the hippocampus of kainic acid-treated mice. The observed modifications could be due to the neuronal hyperexcitability induced by kainic acid rather than neuronal degeneration, because no areas of neuronal loss were detected. Our results suggest that the expression of CaMKII and CaN mRNAs is down-regulated in neuronal cells in response to the hyperexcitability induced by kainic acid. The transient nature of the effect and the apparent absence of significant modifications in the amount of their corresponding proteins may be related to the absence of neuronal damage.
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