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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Cathepsin D ; pS2 ; Heat shock protein 27 ; Immunohistochemistry ; Breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Determination of steroid receptors and several oestrogen-regulated proteins in mammary carcinomas is useful in the prediction of their evolution and of the likely success of endocrine therapy. Cathepsin D (Cat D), pS2 peptide and heat shock protein 27 (Hsp 27) were detected immunohistochemically in 63 infiltrating ductal (NOS) breast carcinomas, and our results were qualitatively correlated with several clinicopathological indicators and patients' overall survival. Cat D immunostaining of tumour cells was strongly associated with axillary nodal involvement (P f=0.0005) and so, it is directly connected with the metastatic capacity of malignant cells. pS2 immunoreactivity was correlated with oestrogen and progesterone receptor positivity (P f=0.0009 and P f=0.05 respectively) and, nonsignificantly, with good differentiation of the tumours (P f=0.06). Neoplastic cells expressing this protein are therefore characterised by a highly organised state of cellular physiology. Hsp 27 was expressed predominantly in tumours with one to four infiltrated lymph nodes (P t=0.05), and Hsp 27-positive patients were inclined to rather short survival, possibly due to chemotherapy resistance. In future, prognostic estimation of each one of the examined markers should be performed in specific large subgroups of patients. The findings of this study contribute to the establishment of criteria by which these subgroups should be formed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-911X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Der Eintritt Griechenlands in die Europäische Gemeinschaft wurde zum Anlass genommen, um anhand der Daten aus den Mitgliedsländern nach einem Zusammenhang zwischen Gesamtmortalität, Sterblichkeit an gewissen Krankheiten und einigen sozio-ökonomischen Indikatoren zu suchen. Innerhalb der Gemeinschaft finden sich noch grosse Unterschiede in Bezug auf Lebensstandard, Stand der industriellen Entwicklung, Urbanisation und Konsumgüterverbrauch. Die Analyse ergab einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen den Ernährungsgewohnheiten und der Sterblichkeit an Krebs und Koronarkrankheit. Eine Korrelation fand sich auch zwischen dem Grad der Urbanisierung und kardiovaskulären Krankheiten sowie akuten Atemwegserkrankungen. Der Haupterwerbszweig und das Bruttosozialprodukt stehen in Zusammenhang mit der Sterblichkeit an Unfällen, Vergiftungen und Atemwegserkrangungen.
    Abstract: Summary Greece is member of the European Economic Community since 1981. This paper analyses the existing relationships between mortality rates and several indices of socio-economic development; these indices deal with the rythm of industrial development, the level of urbanization, the quality and quantity of individual consumption. These indices show marked differences within EEC. Among the factors studied, those related to nutrition show strong association with cancer and coronary mortality; the level of urbanization is associated with mortality from cardiovascular and acute respiratory causes. The employment and the BIP are directly associated with mortality from accident, intoxication and respiratory diseases.
    Notes: Résumé A l'occasion de l'entrée de la Grèce dans la Communauté Economique Européenne, les relations existant entre les taux de mortalité par cause et différents indices socio-économiques sont examinées. Les différences encore marquées existant au sein de la CEE concernant le niveau de vie et le rythme de développement industriel, le niveau d'urbanisation, le volume et la nature de la consommation individuelle sont mis en relation avec les taux de mortalité générale et spécifique. Parmi les facteurs étudiés, les variables de nutrition montrent une forte association avec la mortalité cancéreuse et coronarienne. Le niveau d'urbanisation de la population est lié à la mortalité cardio-vasculaire et par maladies respiratoires aiguës. Le type d'emploi et le produit intérieur brut (PIB) d'un pays sont associés à la mortalité par accidents, intoxications et maladies respiratoires.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast neoplasms ; estrogens ; maternal age ; parity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Total estrogens (TE), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and human placental lactogen (hPL) were determined by radioimmunoassay in the blood of 126 pregnant women during their 26th and 31st weeks of pregnancy and the results were studied in relation to maternal age and parity. Total estrogens and E2 were lowest among the youngest women (〈20 years) and highest among women aged 20–24 years, whereas older women (25 + years) had, on the average, intermediate values. For E3 the pattern was qualitatively similar to that of TE and E2 but less striking, and no maternal age pattern was evident with respect to hPL. Within maternal age groups, TE and E2 were higher among women in the first, than among those in their second, full-term pregnancy; the difference was about seven percent for TE (P=0.14) and about 14 percent for E2 (P=0.05). No parity patterns were evident with respect to E3 and hPL. There were fairly strong correlations between the determinations of the same hormone in the same woman during the 26th and 31st weeks of pregnancy; Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.60 for TE, 0.78 for E2, 0.60 for E3, and 0.72 for hPL. Since the risk of breast cancer increases apparently monotonically with maternal age at birth, the present data are equivocal with respect to the hypothesis linking levels of pregnancy estrogens to risk of breast cancer in the offspring. However, the data are compatible with hypotheses linking excessive pregnancy-estrogen exposure to conditions more common among first-born individuals, including testicular cancer and cryptorchidism.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: case–control ; etiology ; hepatitis B virus ; hepatitis C virus ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; liver cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: During a 4-year period from January 1995 to December 1998, blood samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 333 incident cases of HCC from Athens, Greece, as well as from patients in two control groups, also from Athens. Controls were 272 metastatic liver cancer (MLC) patients and 360 patients hospitalized for injuries or eye, ear, nose or throat conditions. Coded sera were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by third-generation enzyme immunoassays. Results: The odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in logistic regression modeling comparing the HCC cases to the combined control series were 48.8 (30.5–78.3) for the presence of HBsAg and 23.2 (11.4–47.3) for the presence of anti-HCV. The odds ratio for concurrent infection with HBV and HCV was 46.2 (9.9–216.6) compared to infection with neither virus. Conclusions: Although HBV and HCV are both important causes of HCC in this study population the data do not suggest, neither do they conclusively refute, a super-additive interaction between the two infections in the development of this malignancy. In this population, 58% of HCC cases can be attributed to HBV, 12% to HCV, and 3% to dual infection with these viruses.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Case-control study ; Greece ; pancreatic cancer ; risk factors ; tobacco smoking
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A hospital-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer was conducted in Athens in 1991–92. One hundred and eighty-one patients operated on for cancer of the exocrine pancreas in eight teaching hospitals formed the case series, whereas hospital patient controls and hospital visitor controls formed two independent comparison series. Cases and controls were matched by hospital, gender, and age in 1:1:1 ratio, and every matched triplet was interviewed in person by the same researcher. Results indicate that tobacco smoking increased the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas neither coffee drinking nor consumption of alcoholic beverages were associated with the disease. Diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, and pancreatitis were associated positively with risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas allergic asthma was inversely (but not significantly) related to the disease. There was a suggestion that earlier age at menarche was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and that parous women were at lower risk. No consistent associations were noted with respect to gastrectomy, other medical conditions or operations, birth order, height, weight, broad occupational groups, or other reproductive variables. The two comparison series were remarkably similar with respect to the whole spectrum of the study variables.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: bladder neoplasms ; occupation ; risk factors ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: We examined the importance of occupational exposures for bladder cancer in women. Methods: We combined data from 11 case-control studies conducted between 1976 and 1996 in six European countries. The pooled data comprised 700 incident female cases and 2425 population or hospital controls, aged 30–79 years. Lifetime occupational and smoking history were examined using common coding. Results: Excess risks were found in only a few of the occupations previously identified at high risk for bladder cancer. Statistically significant excess risks were observed for metal workers, particularly blacksmiths, toolmakers and machine tool operators (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.6), tobacco workers (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–9.3), field crop and vegetable farm workers (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0–3.1), tailors and dress makers (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0–2.1), saleswomen (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–6.9), and mail sorting clerks (OR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.0–19.5). About 8% (95% CI: 3.1–19.9) of all bladder cancers in women could be attributed to occupation after adjusting for smoking. The attributable risk was higher in women aged less than 65 years (12%), compared to older women (4%). Conclusions: The calculation of the attributable risk on the basis of results from this analysis may have caused some overestimation of the proportion of occupational bladder cancer in women. A significant proportion, however, of bladder cancer cases among European women less than 65years is likely to be attributed to occupation. This link between bladder cancer in women and occupational factors has received little recognition, probably because studies addressing these issues have predominantly been done in men.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Birth order ; breast cancer ; case-control studies ; estrogens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has been hypothesized that prenatal exposure to maternal estrogens may be a risk factor for breast cancer in the offspring. In two recent studies, maternal estradiol levels in the first pregnancy have been compared to those in the second, and in both studies levels were higher in the first pregnancy. If both the hypothesis and the reported findings were true, women born as their mother's second child would be expected to have lower risk for breast cancer than first-born women. Data from 1,468 cases of breast cancer and 4,175 hospital controls from three previously published studies were modelled through multiple logistic regression to evaluate this possibility. The size of the woman's sibship was not related to breast cancer risk. On the other hand, second-born women had, as predicted, lower breast cancer risk than first-born women, although the difference was nominally significant only among premenopausal women. The relative risk for breast cancer, contrasting second-born to first-born women, and the corresponding 95 per cent confidence intervals, were 0.71 (0.54–0.94) among premenopausal women, 0.94 (0.76–1.17) among postmenopausal women, and 0.86 (0.73–1.02) among all women, controlling for menopausal status.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Case-control study ; Greece ; hepatitis B ; hepatitis C ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; parity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Clinical, animal, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that exogenous steroids influence the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a recent study suggested that parity also may increase the risk of this tumor in women. The latter hypothesis was evaluated in the data from a case-control study which was carried out in Athens and covered 166 male and 19 female cases of HCC, and 381 male and 51 female hospital controls. Among males, there was no association between the number of liveborn children and risk of HCC, whereas among women, there was a suggestive positive association. Compared with women with one or two children, the relative risk for HCC was 0.6 among nulliparous women, 1.3 among those with three or four children and 1.7 among those with five or more children. The association of parity with risk of HCC was limited to women who were positive for hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) and was not confounded by hepatitis-C virus infection or tobacco smoking. The small number of HCC cases does not permit firm conclusions. If confirmed, however, these results would provide the foundation for a practical preventive advice that could be given to women who are positive for HBsAg.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Dihydrotestosterone ; estradiol ; Greece ; men ; prostate cancer ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; testosterone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Blood samples were collected from 52 incident cases of histologicallyconfirmed prostate cancer and 52 age- and town of residence-matched healthycontrols in Athens, Greece. Samples were analyzed blindly in Boston,Massachusetts (USA) for testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The data were modeled usingmultiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, height, body mass index(wt/ht2), years of schooling, and mutually among hormones. DHT was associatedinversely, significantly, and strongly with the risk of prostate cancer,whereas T was associated marginally positively, and E2 was associatednonsignificantly inversely with the disease. No association was observed inthis study with respect to SHBG.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Case-control studies ; colorectal neoplasms ; dietary fat ; energy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the intakeof dietary fat upon colorectal cancer risk in a combined analysis of datafrom 13 case-control studies previously conducted in populations withdiffering colorectal cancer rates and dietary practices. Original datarecords for 5,287 cases of colorectal cancer and 10,470 controls werecombined. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR)for intakes of total energy, total fat and its components, and cholesterol.Positive associations with energy intake were observed for 11 of the 13studies. However, there was little, if any, evidence of anyenergy-independent effect of either total fat with ORs of 1.00, 0.95, 1.01,1.02, and 0.92 for quintiles of residuals of total fat intake (P trend =0.67) or for saturated fat with ORs of 1.00, 1.08, 1.06, 1.21, and 1.06 (Ptrend = 0.39). The analysis suggests that, among these case-control studies,there is no energy-independent association between dietary fat intake andrisk of colorectal cancer. It also suggests that simple substitution of fatby other sources of calories is unlikely to reduce meaningfully the risk ofcolorectal cancer.
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