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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Langmuir 10 (1994), S. 481-485 
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Langmuir 10 (1994), S. 1193-1198 
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1440-172X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Reliable assessment instruments are essential for a new nursing care insurance system enacted in April 2000 in Japan, to ensure the quality of home care. We developed an assessment sheet based on a minimum data set and care assessment, previously developed by the Japan Visiting Nursing Foundation. This article describes the process of testing in practice, validation and revision of the assessment sheet and problem/need areas. One hundred and twelve subjects were initially visited in 48 home care agencies. The same nurse used the assessment sheet for the same client at the initial visit and one month later. After a refinement process, the assessment items and problem/needs areas were simplified. Documentation time for the assessment was significantly shortened. These assessment instruments help development of care plans by identifying client needs, utilization of social resources and evaluation of outcomes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: To improve the low water wettability of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), graft polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) by UV irradiation was performed onto the surface of a PET film with the simultaneous irradiation method without using a photo sensitizer. The PET film immersed in a 10 wt % deaerated aqueous solution of AAm was found to become highly hydrophilic upon UV irradiation. Optical microscopy on cross sections of grafted films showed that localization of the graft polymerization was restricted to a thin surface region of the film. Both the low concentration of polymer radicals formed by UV irradiation and the monomer penetration limited to the film surface would be responsible for localization of the grafted layer to the film surface region. Pretreatment of the PET film with benzyl alcohol was effective for enhancement of the graft polymerization. Retention of high hydrophilicity of the surface even after rigorous extraction of homopolymer and a comparative study of polymerization without UV irradiation strongly suggested that UV irradiation of the PET film under immersion in the deaerated AAm aqueous solution would lead to formation of the true graft copolymer.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Graft polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) was performed onto the surface of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film with the simultaneous UV irradiation method but using no photosensitizer and without degassing. To examine whether polyacrylamide (PAAm) was introduced into the bulk place of PET film by the surface graft polymerization, an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) study was performed on the PAAm-grafted PET films. The distribution of grafted PAAm chains on and in the PET films was estimated from the PAAm/PET ratio calculated from the XPS spectra of PET films with different amounts of grafted PAAm. The results clearly demonstrate that graft polymerization has actually occurred not merely on the outermost surface but also within the thin surface region of the PET film. In addition, the XPS analysis revealed that the PET component was always present in the grafted surface region by a mole fraction of 0.1 to 0.05 even when the amount of PAAm grafted was larger than 10 μg/cm2.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Langmuir 9 (1993), S. 1121-1124 
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A new method omitting oxygen removal procedures from polymerization mixtures was developed for graft polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) onto the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film with the simultaneous UV irradiation method without photo-sensitizer. UV irradiation of the PET film with a high pressure mercury lamp under immersion in the 10 wt % aqueous solution of AAm containing an appropriate quantity of periodate (NaIO4) was found to give a highly hydrophilic surface with a water contact angle of about 20°. The original PET film had a contact angle of 75°. In the concentration range of NaIO4 below 1 × 10-4M and above 1 × 10-2 M, polymerization did not take place, whereas polymerization was found to proceed to a significant extent when the NaIO4 concentration ranged between 3 × 10-4 and 5 × 10-3 M. Based on the concentration change of O2 dissolved in the solution during polymerization and the UV spectra of the aqueous AAm solution containing NaIO4 exposed to UV radiation, a reaction mechanism was proposed for the graft polymerization conducted without degassing in the presence of NaIo4.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Graft polymerization of anionic and cationic monomers was performed onto the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film with a simultaneous UV irradiation method, but using no photo-sensitizer. To effect graft polymerization, the PET film was immersed in an aqueous solution containing a monomer and periodate (NaIO4) of appropriate concentrations, followed by UV irradiation without degassing. The monomers used were 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and acrylic acid as anionic and N,N-dimethyl aminopropyl acrylamide and dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate as cationic monomer. The role of NaIO4 at the polymerization was to make the concentration of oxygen dissolved in solution zero by the photochemical reaction with the oxygen. The surface structure of grafted films was characterized by their contact angle, dyeing, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta potentials. Graft polymerization took place, not merely on the outermost surface, but also within the thin surface region of the PET film without any change in bulk properties. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 61 (1996), S. 1365-1373 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Quaternary amines were introduced onto a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film surface by two different methods using UV-induced graft polymerization. The first involves a two-step reaction: graft polymerization of N,N′-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto the PET film, followed by quaternization of the tertiary N,N′-dimethylamino groups of grafted chains using alkyl bromides (RnBr). The second is direct graft polymerization of DMAEMA having pendant quaternary amines onto the PET film. The alkyl bromides used for quaternization of the monomers and graft chains include: n-propyl, n-butyl, n-octyl, n-lauryl, and n-cetyl bromide. The two-step method could quaternarize 90% of the pendant N,N′-dimethylamino groups of the graft chains when R3Br was used. The extent of quaternization decreased with the increasing carbon number of alkyl bromide. The direct one-step method gave a graft amine density of 8 nmol/cm2 when the monomer quaternized with R3Br was used for the graft polymerization in the presence of 1 X 10-3M sodium metaperiodate. The carbon number of alkyl chains in the quaternary amines estimated from XPS spectra was in good agreement with that of RnBr used for quaternization. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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