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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; Crescent-shaped spaces ; Ultrastructure ; Nivalenol ; Thymus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  There have been many reports on the formation of apoptotic bodies, but little is known about the cellular pathological processes and the morphological changes involved. We induced apoptotic cell death by administering nivalenol (NIV), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, and investigated the ultrastructural process of formation of apoptotic bodies. The thymus was examined by electron microscopy 6, 12, and 18 h after administration. Apoptotic cell death was induced in the thymus of NIV-treated mice. The nuclei became invaginated and pinched off to give fragments, and crescent-shaped spaces (CSS) were found around the nuclear envelopes of these cells at quite an early stage. In some of these spaces, myelin figures were observed. We divided the process of formation into four stages and characterized each of them. These are easily recognized in morphological stages and are also useful for clarifying the apoptotic mechanism.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1423-0127
    Keywords: Fusarium sporotrichioides ; Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase ; Partial amino acid sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Peptidyl-proprylyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity was observed from crude extract ofFusarium sporotrichioides. Proteins from this fungi were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and more than one thousand protein spots were separated. Two cytosolic PPIases were found by the N-terminal sequencing from the two separated spots. The N-terminal 41 residues of the major protein spot showed high sequence identity (63.4%) with PPIase fromNeurospora crassa. This protein was designated as PPIase a, having an apparent molecular mass of 20 kD and pI 7.0. The minor other protein spot, having a similar molecular mass but distinguishable pI 6.4, was also sequenced and the N-terminal twenty residues were almost identical to PPIase a and was designated as PPIase b.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1423-0127
    Keywords: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis ; Protein separation ; Fusarium sporotrichioides ; Imperfect fungus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Proteins fromFusarium sporotrichioides M-1-1, a T2-toxin-producing strain, were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. One thousand two hundred and forty-four protein spots were resolved and 103 protein spots were subjected to N-terminal sequencing. Fifty-eight protein spots were sequenced and 48 proteins were observed to have blocked N termini. Forty out of 58 sequenced proteins were identified by homology search against the PIR protein sequence data base and protein superfamily data base, while the residual 18 sequences were not identified. Twenty-seven of the N-terminal-blocked proteins were subjected to mild anhydrous hydrazine vapor deblocking. Twenty-four spots were not deblocked indicating the presence of acyl groups at the N termini, while 3 proteins were deblocked showing the blocked group to be pyrroglutamyl carboxylic acid residues. The results can provide a more global view of cellular genetic expression than any other technique. The created data may offer a unique opportunity to link information with DNA sequence data.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1423-0127
    Keywords: Ribosome-inactivating protein(s) ; Trichosanthes anguina ; Trichoanguina ; Protein sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study, we sequenced a new type I ribosome-inactivating protein, trichoanguina, from the seeds ofTrichosanthes anguina (snake gourd). Trichoanguina is a basic glycoprotein having an apparent molecular mass of 35.0 kD and possessing strong ribosome-inactivating activity. Trichoanguina was cleaved with cyanogen bromide and partially digested with thermolysin, chymotrypsin, trypsin andStaphylococcus aureus V8 protease. The subsequent peptide fragments were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by electroblotting to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes and then sequencing. The sequencing of trichoanguina was completed, consisting of 245 amino acid residues. The sequencing of trichoanguina revealed a considerable homology to trichosanthin anda-trichosanthin, which are known as abortifacient, ribosome-inactivating and antihuman immunodeficiency virus proteins, with 46.7% and 55.6% amino acid identities, respectively. The sequence conserves two active sites: Glu-158 and Arg-161.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Fumonisin B1 ; C6 Glioma cells ; DNA fragmentation ; Comet assay ; Apoptosis ; Prevention by Vitamin E
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fumonisin B1 (FB1), produced by the fungus Fusarium moniliforme, belongs to a class of sphingosine analogue mycotoxins that occur widely in the food chain. Epidemiological studies have associated consumption of Fusarium moniliforme-contaminated food with human oesophageal cancer in China and South Africa. FB1 also causes equine leucoencephalomalacia. Evidence for induction of apoptosis by FB1 was first obtained when C6 glioma cells were incubated with fumonisin B1 (3–27 μM) causing DNA fragmentation profiles showing DNA laddering in gel electrophoresis and apoptotic bodies revealed by chromatin staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Further confirmation experiments and comet assays have been performed under similar conditions. The results of the comet test show that FB1 at 9 and 18 μM induces respectively 50 ± 2% and 40 ± 1% of cells with a comet with an increased tail length of 93 ± 9 μm and 102 ± 17 μm respectively. Under these concentrations, FB1 induced DNA fragmentation and laddering and many apoptotic bodies. Pre-incubation of the cells with vitamin E (25 μM) for 24 h before FB1 (18 μM) significantly reduced DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies induced by FB1.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Monatshefte für Chemie 113 (1982), S. 641-643 
    ISSN: 1434-4475
    Keywords: 5H-Benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one ; 6-Ethyl-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one ; 6-Methyl-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 6-Alkyl-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one wurden mittels Reaktion von 5H-Benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-onen mit Carbonsäuren in Gegenwart von Silberionen und Peroxydisulfat dargestellt.
    Notes: Abstract 6-Alkyl-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-ones were prepared by the reaction of 5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one with carboxylic acid in the presence of silver ion and peroxydisulfate.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Monatshefte für Chemie 123 (1992), S. 199-201 
    ISSN: 1434-4475
    Keywords: 16-Hydroxy-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecanophenothiazine ; 16H-2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenothiazin-16-one
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Reaktion des 1,4-Chinons von Benzo[15]krone-5 mit 2-Aminophenol ergab in saurem Medium 16-Hydroxy-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecanophenothiazin und 16H-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenothiazin-16-on. Die Oxidation des Alkohols zum entsprechenden Keton wurde ebenfalls untersucht.
    Notes: Summary The reaction of 1,4-quinone of benzo[15]crown-5 with 2-aminothiophenol in an acidic medium afforded 16-hydroxy-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecanophenothiazine and 16H-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenothiazin-16-one. The oxidation of the alcohol to the corresponding ketone was also investigated.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Monatshefte für Chemie 123 (1992), S. 655-658 
    ISSN: 1434-4475
    Keywords: 16H-2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenoxazin-16-one ; 16-Hydroxy-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecanophenoxazine ; 17,18-Dibromo-16,19-dioxo-2,5,8,11,14-petaoxabiclo[13.4.0]-115,1718-nonadecadien ; 17-Bromo-16H-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenoxazin-16-one
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 16H-2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenoxazin-16-on, sein Brom-Analog und 16-Hydroxy-pentaoxacyclopentadecanophenoxazin wurden mittels der Reaktion des 1,4-Chinons von Benzo[15]krone-5 oder dessen Dibromid mit 2-Aminophenol hergestellt. Die Dehalogenierung von Bromphenoxazinon wurde ebenfalls untersucht.
    Notes: Summary 16H-2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenoxazin-16-one, its 17-bromo analogue and 16-hydroxy-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecanophenoxazine were prepared by the reaction of 1,4-quinone of benzo[15]crown-5 or its dibromide with 2-aminophenol. Dehalogenation of the bromophenoxazinone was also investigated.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Monatshefte für Chemie 123 (1992), S. 849-852 
    ISSN: 1434-4475
    Keywords: 16H-2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenoselenazin-16-one ; 20-Chloro-16H-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenoselenazin-16-one ; 17-Bromo-16H-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenoselenazin-16-one ; 20-Chloro-17-bromo-16H-2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxacyclopentadecano[2,3-a]phenoselenazin-16-one
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Es wurden einige substituierte Kronen-Phenoselenazin-16-on-Derivate mittels Kondensation von substituierten Zink-2-aminobenzolselenolaten mit dem 1,4-Chinon von Benzo[15]krone-5 oder seinem Dibromid in alkoholischer Lösung dargestellt. Die Dehalogenierung der Bromselenazinone wurde ebenfalls untersucht.
    Notes: Summary Several substituted crowned phenoselenazin-16-one derivatives were prepared by condensation of substituted zinc 2-amino-benzeneselenolates with 1,4-quinone of benzo[15]crown-5 or its dibromide in alcoholic solution. The dehalogenation of the bromoselenazinones was also investigated.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Monatshefte für Chemie 112 (1981), S. 1459-1461 
    ISSN: 1434-4475
    Keywords: 5H-Benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one ; 6-Propionyl-5H-benzo[a]-phenoxazin-5-one
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Titelverbindungen wurden mittels photochemischer Reaktion von 5H-Benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-onen mit Aldehyden hergestellt.
    Notes: Abstract 6-Acyl-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-ones were prepared by the photochemical reaction of 5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one with aldehydes.
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