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  • 1
    Keywords: POPULATION ; MUTATIONS ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; HAPLOTYPE ; DYSFUNCTION ; COMPETING RISK ; ACTIVATED PROTEIN-C ; ALA455VAL POLYMORPHISM ; PLASMA THROMBOMODULIN
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major and often fatal complication after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT). Although the pathophysiology of steroid refractoriness is not fully understood, evidence is accumulating that endothelial cell stress is involved, and endothelial thrombomodulin (THBD) plays a role in this process. Here we assess whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the THBD gene predict outcome after alloSCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven SNPs within the THBD gene were studied (rs1962, rs1042579, rs1042580, rs3176123, rs3176124, rs3176126, and rs3176134) in a training cohort of 306 patients. The relevant genotypes were then validated in an independent cohort (n = 321). RESULTS: In the training cohort, an increased risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was associated with three of seven SNPs tested: rs1962, rs1042579 (in linkage disequilibrium with rs3176123), and rs1042580. When patients were divided into risk groups (one v no high-risk SNP), a strong correlation with NRM was observed (hazard ratio [HR], 2.31; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.95; P = .002). More specifically, NRM was predicted by THBD SNPs in patients who later developed GVHD (HR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.61 to 5.68; P 〈 .001) but not in patients without GVHD. In contrast, THBD SNPs did not predict incidence of acute GVHD. Multivariable analyses adjusting for clinical variables confirmed the independent effect of THBD SNPs on NRM. All findings could be reproduced in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: THBD SNPs predict mortality of manifest GVHD but not the risk of acquiring GVHD, supporting the hypothesis that endothelial vulnerability contributes to GVHD refractoriness.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25225421
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  • 2
    Abstract: Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified by TCRs or CARs represents a highly attractive novel therapeutic strategy to treat malignant diseases. Various approaches for the development of such gene therapy medicinal products (GTMPs) have been initiated by scientists in recent years. To date, however, the number of clinical trials commenced in Germany and Europe is still low. Several hurdles may contribute to the delay in clinical translation of these therapeutic innovations including the significant complexity of manufacture and non-clinical testing of these novel medicinal products, the limited knowledge about the intricate regulatory requirements of the academic developers as well as limitations of funds for clinical testing. A suitable good manufacturing practice (GMP) environment is a key prerequisite and platform for the development, validation, and manufacture of such cell-based therapies, but may also represent a bottleneck for clinical translation. The German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) and the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) have initiated joint efforts of researchers and regulators to facilitate and advance early phase, academia-driven clinical trials. Starting with a workshop held in 2016, stakeholders from academia and regulatory authorities in Germany have entered into continuing discussions on a diversity of scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory aspects, as well as the benefits and risks of clinical application of CAR/TCR-based cell therapies. This review summarizes the current state of discussions of this cooperative approach providing a basis for further policy-making and suitable modification of processes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29380009
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  • 3
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; THERAPY ; MARROW-TRANSPLANTATION ; STEM-CELL TRANSPLANTATION ; MINIMAL RESIDUAL DISEASE ; fludarabine ; TRISOMY-12 ; PREDICTOR ; ERADICATION ; INTENSITY ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION
    Abstract: The purpose of this analysis was to provide 6-year follow-up of the CLL3X trial, which studied reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and to investigate the effect of TP53, SF3B1, and NOTCH1 mutations on HSCT outcome. For 90 allografted patients, 6-year overall survival (OS) was 58% and 6-year event-free survival (EFS) was 38%. TP53, SF3B1, and NOTCH1 mutations were found in 30%, 26%, and 14% of the trial population, respectively. By univariate and multivariate analyses, the mutational status of the TP53, SF3B1, and NOTCH1 genes had no significant effect on OS and EFS. Studies of minimal residual disease confirmed durability of CLL eradication in mutated patients. We conclude that HSCT can provide long-term disease control in patients with poor-risk CLL independent of the presence of TP53, SF3B1, and NOTCH1 mutations. The trial has been registered at the US National Cancer Institute as #EU-20554, NCT00281983.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23435461
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Bone marrow transplantation ; Leukemia ; Graft-vs-host reaction ; Animal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Clinical data have suggested that graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) plays a crucial role in the antileukemic effects of bone marrow grafts. We investigated (a) whether bone marrow cells unable to induce GVHD can effect graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity and (b) whether such antileukemic capacity depends on the presence of T lymphocytes in the graft. Balb/c mice were inoculated with A 20 cells, a B-cell lymphoma/leukemia of Balb/c origin. Four weeks after tumor inoculation the animals were lethally irradiated and received a bone marrow graft. Cells from (Balb/c × C57) F1 or (C3H × Balb/c) F1 hybrids were transplanted into parental-strain Balb/c mice. Since lymphocytes from F1 hybrids are unable to cause graft-versus-host reactivity against a parental-strain animal, we used this experimental setting to explore GVL effects in a GVHD-free system. In vitro incubation with monoclonal anti-Thy-1.2 antibody plus complement was used to eliminate Thy-1+ cells. After syngeneic transplantation, the death rate due to leukemia remained unchanged (91%) compared with that among untreated animals (86%). Following transplantation of F1 marrow cells of either (C57 × Balb/c) F1 or (C3 H × Balb/c) F1 origin, death rates of 40% and 50% were observed; these were significantly lower. Depletion of Thy 1+ cells from bone marrow graft caused only a slight increase in the leukemic death rate after transplantation of bone marrow of (C57 × Balb/c) F1 hybrid origin (50%), but a high leukemic death rate was seen after transplantation of (C3H × Balb/c) F1 bone marrow (100%). Additional experiments with fully allogeneic, T-cell-depleted C57 bone marrow transplantation suggest an antileukemic effect that is comparable to that seen after transplantation of unmanipulated F1 bone marrow. Taken together, our results indicate that GVL activity can be dissociated from graft-versus-host reaction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words NK cell ; Cytotoxicity assay ; SCLC ; Interleukin-2 ; Interleukin-12
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Activation of natural killer (NK) cells with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 leads to an enhanced lysis of tumour cells. We investigated the ability of NK cells, with or without prior activation, to lyse a variety of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) target cells. Specific lysis was measured with a fluorometric assay for NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity: target cells were labelled with 3,3′-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine, a green membrane dye. After co-incubation with NK cells, dead target cells were stained with propidium iodide, a red DNA dye that only penetrates dead cells. Of all eight SCLC cell lines tested, three were susceptible to lysis by non-activated NK cells, three were only susceptible to lysis by NK cells activated with IL-2 and IL-12 and two were not even susceptible to lysis by activated NK cells. The differences in target cell susceptibility showed no correlation with the expression of MHC-I on the surface of the target cells or with the expression of the adhesion molecules CD50, CD54, CD58 or CD102. Comparing the kinetics of the lysis of one SCLC cell line sensitive to non-activated NK cells and one sensitive only to activated NK cells, we found that maximum lysis of the former was obtained after 1 h, whereas significant lysis of the latter was only obtained after 4 h of incubation. This might be due to different mechanisms engaged in target cell lysis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Bone marrow transplantation ; Ifosfamide ; Cyclophosphamide ; ACNU ; Busulfan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have tested ifosfamide and ACNU for their effectiveness in preventing graft rejection following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The engraftment-promoting potency of both was compared to that of the standard agent cyclophosphamide. LEW rats received a lethal dose (35 mg/kg) of busulfan followed by injection of 1×108 (CAP×LEW) F1 marrow cells, which are unable to induce a graft vs host reaction in LEW recipients. Rejection of the marrow graft was assessed by monitoring haematocrit and granulocyte count either until death of the animal or until day 80. Surviving animals received a donor-type skin graft to confirm the persistence of allogeneic haematopoiesis. Because of its weak immunosuppressive properties, busulfan by itself is unable to allow engraftment of allogeneic marrow. Therefore, ifosfamide and ACNU and cyclophosphamide as the standard agent could be tested for their capacity to prevent marrow graft rejection. The following rejection rates were observed: cyclophosphamide: 30 mg/ kg 100%, 60 mg/kg 60%, 90 mg/kg 20%, 120 mg/kg and 180 mg/kg 0%; ACNU: 3, 5, 7, and 10 mg/kg 100%, 15 mg/kg 45%, 20 and 30 mg/kg 0%; ifosfamide: 60–120 mg/kg 100%, 180 mg/kg 68%, 240 and 360 mg/kg 0%. Thus, 240 mg/kg ifosfamide or 20 mg/kg ACNU is nearly equivalent to the standard dose of 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide in engraftment-promoting potency in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: Mantle cell lymphonia ; pbpc ; therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MC) is not curable with conventionalchemotherapy. To improve the prognosis of patients with this disease, weprospectively studied an intensive sequential therapy consisting of theDexa-BEAM regimen (dexamethasone, BCNU, etoposide, ara-C, melphalan) followedby myeloablative therapy with autologous stem cell reinfusion. Patients and methods: Nine consecutive patients with stage III/IV MC wereincluded. Two had untreated disease, four were in first remission, whereasthree had more advanced disease. All patients underwent one to two cycles ofDexa-BEAM chemotherapy to reduce the tumor load and to mobilize peripheralblood progenitor cells (PBPC). Subsequently, patients were treated withhigh-dose radiochemotherapy followed by PBPC reinfusion and were prospectivelyanalyzed for residual disease by clinical methods as well as by PCRamplification clonal CDRIII rearrangements. Results: With an overall response rate of 100%, the initialDexa-BEAM cycles effectively reduced the tumor load. All patients proceededto high-dose therapy and subsequent stem cell rescue. Engraftment was prompt,and procedure-related deaths did not occur. With a median follow-up of 12(3–33) months post transplant, all patients are alive in continuingclinical and molecular remission. Conclusions: Sequential intensive therapy consisting of Dexa-BEAM andhigh-dose radiochemotherapy appears to be a highly effective treatment forpatients with MC. However, the data are still preliminary, and larger patientnumbers and a longer follow-up are required.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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