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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; SPECIFICATION ; neurogenesis ; GLUCOCORTICOIDS ; TYROSINE-HYDROXYLASE ; SYMPATHOADRENAL LINEAGE ; FATE DETERMINATION ; CHICK-EMBRYOS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic structure unique to vertebrates, which generates peripheral sensory and autonomic neurons, glia, neuroendocrine chromaffin and thyroid C-cells, melanocytes, and mesenchymal derivatives such as parts of the skull, heart, and meninges. The sympathoadrenal (SA) cell lineage is one major sub-lineage of the NC that gives rise to sympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells. A key question is when during NC ontogeny do multipotent progenitors segregate into the different NC-derived lineages. Recent evidence suggested that sympathetic, sensory, and melanocyte progenitors delaminate from the thoracic neural tube (NT) in successive, largely non-overlapping waves and that at least certain NC progenitors are already fate-restricted within the NT. Whether sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells, suggested by cell culture studies to share a common progenitor, are also fate segregated in ovo prior to emigration, is not known. RESULTS: We have conducted single cell electroporations of a GFP-encoding plasmid into the dorsal midline of E2 chick NTs at the adrenomedullary level of the NC. Analysis of their derivatives, performed at E6, revealed that in most cases, labelled progeny was detected in both sympathetic ganglia and adrenal glands, where cells co-expressed characteristic marker combinations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells share a common progenitor in the NT. Together with previous findings we suggest that phenotypic diversification of these sublineages is likely to occur after delamination from the NT and prior to target encounter.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23777568
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; SYSTEM ; SITE ; SITES ; GENE ; GENES ; transcription ; MICE ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; RAT ; MOLECULE ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; MUTATION ; DERIVATIVES ; MUTATIONS ; Jun ; glucocorticoid receptor ; GLUCOCORTICOID-RECEPTOR ; targeted ; MICE LACKING ; REQUIREMENT ; NEURONS ; GLAND ; development ; progenitor ; signalling ; GLUCOCORTICOIDS ; ACHAETE-SCUTE HOMOLOG-1 ; adrenal chromaffin cells ; GANGLION-CELLS ; GRANULE-CONTAINING CELLS ; neural crest ; NEURAL CREST DERIVATIVES ; sympathetic nervous system
    Abstract: This article summarizes some of the recent progress in understanding the development of chromaffin cells. These cells are derivatives of the neural crest and are intimately associated with the sympathetic nervous system. Although a common sympathoadrenal (SA) progenitor cell for chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons has been postulated, there is evidence to suggest that chromaffin progenitors are already distinct, at least in part, from neuronal SA progenitors prior to invading the adrenal gland. The concept of an essential role of glucocorticoid signalling for chromaffin cell development has been shaken by the observation that chromaffin cells in mice lacking the glucocorticoid receptor develop largely normal. Distinct developmental requirements of chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons must also be assumed based on the analyses of mice carrying targeted mutations of the genes for two transcription factors, MASH1 and Phox2B. Both genes are expressed by SA progenitors, but are distinctly required for the development of chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons. There is an ongoing search for molecules selectively operating at the sites, where chromaffin cells develop. Such molecules may be candidates for triggering the distinct developmental pathway of chromaffin cells, as opposed to sympathetic neurons
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16187226
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX ; NEURITE OUTGROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA ; AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN ; PROGRAMMED CELL-DEATH ; extracellular matrix ; BIOLOGICAL-ACTIVITIES ; NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ; transforming growth factor-beta ; APP ; programmed cell death ; LATENT TGF-BETA ; Ciliary ganglion ; Disabled-1 ; F-spondin ; HEPARIN-BINDING DOMAIN ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
    Abstract: The extracellular membrane-associated protein F-spondin has been implicated in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion and plays an important role in axonal pathfinding. We report here that F-spondin is expressed in non-neuronal cells in the embryonic chicken ciliary ganglion (CG) and robustly promotes survival of cultured CG neurons. Using deletion constructs of F-spondin we found that the amino-terminal Reelin/Spondin domain cooperates with thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) 6, a functional TGF beta-activation domain. In ovo treatment with blocking antibodies raised against the Reelin/Spondin domain or the TSR-domains caused increased apoptosis of CG neurons during the phase of programmed cell death and loss of about 30% of the neurons compared to controls. The Reelin/Spondin domain receptor - APP and its downstream signalling molecule disabled-1 are expressed in CG neurons. F-spondin induced rapid phosphorylation of disabled-1. Moreover, both blocking the central APP domain and interference with disabled-1 signalling disrupted the survival promoting effect of F-spondin. Taken together, our data suggest that F-spondin can promote neuron survival by a mechanism involving the Reelin/Spondin and the TSR domains.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21145970
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  • 4
    Keywords: RESPONSES ; STRESS ; CLOCK ; RECEPTORS ; LIGHT ; NEWBORN ; NOISE ; CIRCADIAN-RHYTHMS ; Animal model,Brain ; DISTURBANCES ; DOPAMINE ; MATERNAL-DEPRIVATION ; Neurodevelopment ; Neurotransmitter ; PREMATURE-INFANTS ; Preterm
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Stress and environmental perturbations influence postnatal brain development and may account for the high disability rates of preterm survivors following intensive care treatment. This study aims to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system in the developing rat brain by using an innovative neonatal stress model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After birth, in the experimental groups newborn rats were separated from their mothers and exposed to different stressful stimuli four times a day on day P0 to P6 for 10 min each. To mimic intensive care treatment, the stress protocol applied environmental factors like bright light, noise, and low temperature alternating with pain and handling stress at day- and night-time in a varying sequence. The non-stressed control mothers and litters were left completely undisturbed until sacrificing on day P7 or P20. RESULTS: Brains of stressed animals revealed significantly higher levels of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) as determined by HPLC-ED and electrochemical detection at day P7 as compared to controls. When returned to their mothers' undisturbed care, juvenile rats at day P20 still showed higher (yet statistically not significant) concentrations of NE and DA in brain. The stressed animals gained less weight with significantly lower body weights at day P7 compared to controls. Their mothers developed various forms of stressed behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: A novel animal model for postnatal intensive care stress was established leading to changes in brain monoamine levels of newborn rats, while undisturbed maternal care seems to moderate the stress effects subsequently.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21862272
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  • 5
    Keywords: transcription ; MESSENGER-RNA ; ELEMENT ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; CYCLIC-AMP ; TYROSINE AMINOTRANSFERASE GENE ; mineralocorticoid receptor ; SERINE DEHYDRATASE GENE ; HORMONAL-CONTROL ; CORTICOTROPIN
    Abstract: The role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in glucocorticoid physiology and during development was investigated by generation of GR-deficient mice by gene targeting. GR -/- mice die within a few hours after birth because of respiratory failure. The lungs at birth are severely atelectatic, and development is impaired from day 15.5 p.c. Newborn livers have a reduced capacity to activate genes for key gluconeogenic enzymes. Feedback regulation via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is severely impaired resulting in elevated levels of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (15-fold) and plasma corticosterone (2.5-fold). Accordingly, adrenal glands are enlarged because of hypertrophy of the cortex, resulting in increased expression of key cortical steroid biosynthetic enzymes, such as side-chain cleavage enzyme, steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase, and aldosterone synthase. Adrenal glands lack a central medulla and synthesize no adrenaline. They contain no adrenergic chromaffin cells and only scattered noradrenergic chromaffin cells even when analyzed from the earliest stages of medulla development. These results suggest that the adrenal medulla may be formed from two different cell populations: adrenergic-specific cells that require glucocorticoids for proliferation and/or survival, and a smaller noradrenergic population that differentiates normally in the absence of glucocorticoid signaling.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 7628695
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  • 6
    Keywords: DEATH ; DISEASE ; TISSUE ; MICE ; RAT ; MOUSE ; ADRENAL-MEDULLA ; MONITORING AUTOPHAGY ; LABELING INDEX ; PARAGANGLIA
    Abstract: Neuroendocrine chromaffin cells exist in both intra- and extra-adrenal locations; the organ of Zuckerkandl (OZ) constitutes the largest accumulation of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue in mammals. The OZ disappears postnatally by modes that are still enigmatic but can be maintained by treatment with glucocorticoids (GC). Whether the response to GC reflects a pharmacological or a physiological role of GC has not been clarified. Using mice with a conditional deletion of the GC-receptor (GR) gene restricted to cells expressing the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene [GR(fl/fl) ; DBHCre abbreviated (GR(DBHCre) )], we now present the first evidence for a physiological role of GC signalling in the postnatal maintenance of the OZ: postnatal losses of OZ chromaffin cells in GR(DBHCre) mice are doubled compared to wild-type littermates. We find that postnatal cell loss in the OZ starts at birth and is accompanied by autophagy. Electron microscopy reveals autophagic vacuoles and autophagolysosomes in chromaffin cells. Autophagy in OZ extra-adrenal chromaffin cells is confirmed by showing accumulation of p62 protein, which occurs, when autophagy is blocked by deleting the Atg5 gene (Atg5(DBHCre) mice). Cathepsin-D, a lysosomal marker, is expressed in cells that surround chromaffin cells and are positive for the macrophage marker BM8. Macrophages are relatively more abundant in mice lacking the GR, indicating more robust elimination of degenerating chromaffin cells in GR(DBHCre) mice than in wild-type littermates. In summary, our results indicate that extra-adrenal chromaffin cells in the OZ show signs of autophagy, which accompany their postnatal numerical decline, a process that is controlled by GR signalling.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23078542
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  • 7
    Abstract: Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been thought to determine the fate of chromaffin cells from sympathoadrenal progenitor cells. The analysis of mice carrying a germ line deletion of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene has challenged these previous results because the embryonic development of adrenal chromaffin cells is largely unaltered. In the present study, we have analyzed the role of GC-dependent signaling in the postnatal development of adrenal chromaffin cells by conditional inactivation of the GR gene in cells expressing dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of noradrenaline and adrenaline. These mutant mice are viable, allowing to study whether in the absence of GC signaling further development of the adrenal medulla is affected. Our analysis shows that the loss of GR leads not only to the loss of phenylethanolamine-N-methyl-transferase expression and, therefore, to inhibition of adrenaline synthesis, but also to a dramatic reduction in the number of adrenal chromaffin cells. We provide evidence that increased apoptotic cell death is the main consequence of GR loss. These findings define the essential role of GCs for survival of chromaffin cells and underscore the specific requirement of GCs for adrenergic chromaffin cell differentiation and maintenance. (Endocrinology 150: 1775-1781, 2009)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19036879
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  • 8
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  56. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie e.V. (DGNC), 3èmes journées françaises de Neurochirurgie (SFNC); 20050507-20050511; Strasbourg; DOCP163 /20050504/
    Publication Date: 2005-05-05
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Explants of rat adrenal medulla were grown in tissue culture. The effects of various doses of dbcAMP ranging from 0.001 mM up to 1 mM and equimolar amounts of theophylline were recorded by phase contrast optics and catecholamine histochemistry (glyoxylic acid method) over six days. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of the normally occurring outgrowth of Schwann cells, “chromaffin” cells and axons from the explants. Maintenance of glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence in “chromaffin” cells was dose-dependent, too. Since theophylline is known to enhance intracellular levels of cAMP only, these effects are probably due to the action of cAMP. cAMP obviously maintains the degree of differentiation of chromaffin cells. Thus it could be argued that a certain degree of dedifferentiation is a prerequisite for the formation of axons from these cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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