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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A deletion of one of the two copies of a 9-bp direct repeat sequence (CCCCCTCTA) in region V of mitochondrial DNA has previously been used as a polymorphic anthropological marker for people of east Asian origin, and to a lesser extent, in Oceanian and African populations. We report the presence of the 9-bp deletion in homoplasmy in skeletal muscle fibers and lymphocytes of a Spanish Caucasian individual. Other mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms associated with the 9-bp deletion characteristic of other populations were not present. Our results suggest that the 9-bp deletion probably originated independently in the maternal lineage of the propositus, and that it can thus be described as a recurrent mutation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words General anaesthetics ; Halothane ; Isoflurane ; Mitochondria ; Electron transport chain ; Respiratory chain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: General anaesthetics inhibit mitochondrial function in animal models. However, very few studies have been performed in humans, and the results have not been conclusive. Methods: We prospectively studied the oxygen consumption and the individual enzyme activity of each complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain of skeletal muscle mitochondria in 54 healthy individuals who underwent general anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery. The control group (n = 54) was made up of individuals submitted to the same orthopaedic procedure under regional anaesthesia (n = 31), and patients who underwent muscle biopsies for diagnostic purposes by local anaesthesia (n = 23). Results: We found a significant decrease in the oxidation of glutamate (−36%), succinate (−25%) and ascorbate (−29%) in the general anaesthetic group compared with the controls (P 〈 0.001 for all substrates). The level of such inhibition was similar for volatile anaesthetics with strong (halothane) or weak (isoflurane) negative inotropic effect. By contrast, the enzymatic activity of all individual complexes and the coupling of oxidative phosphorylation did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion: We conclude that during general anaesthetic procedures there is an extensive inhibition of substrate oxidation in human muscle mitochondria, and that it is not caused by a direct effect on complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain or through uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Inflammatory myopathy ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Inflammatory cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Percentages of B-cells, T-cells and subsets Th, Ts, T activated, and macrophages were analyzed by using monoclonal antibodies in a series of 24 patients [19 dermatomyosis (DM) and 5 polymyositis (PM)]. Specific site of deposition of these cells was also identified (endomysial, perimysial and perivascular). We were able to find a greater number of endomysial T-cells in PM than in DM. However, B-cells were more frequent at perivascular sites in DM than in PM. These findings support the previous reported hypothesis that humorally-mediated immune damage in both vascular and muscle cells predominates in DM while cellular cytotoxic mediated damage is more marked in PM patients.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Addiction biology 2 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1369-1600
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ethanol consumption may induce acute and chronic effects on the myocardium. High-dose acute ethanol intake may induce a decrease in myocardial contraction and produce a variety of rhythm disturbances. These effects are more relevant in patients with underlying cardiomyopathy. Chronic ethanol intake may induce the development of a dilated cardiomyopathy, which is clinically and functionally similar to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is potentially reversible with abstinence. The prognosis depends on the persistence or abstinence of ethanol intake. There is a positive correlation between alcoholic cardiomyopathy and the presence of other ethanol-related diseases, such as skeletal myopathy and cirrhosis. In patients with a specific ethanol-related disease, the possible presence of other complications of alcoholism should be ruled out. Although there are several factors potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related myocardial damage, ethanol itself may induce direct myocardial lesions, which are dose-related and independent of nutrition, protein or ionic deficiencies. The most relevant pathogenic studies on alcoholic cardiomyopathy are based on the disruption of membrane permeability and ionic fluxes mediated by ethanol, inducing a decrease in the calcium transients through the sarcolemma and interfering with the excitation-contraction coupling of myocytes. Cell energy depletion or protein-turnover disruption may contribute to the deleterious effect of ethanol on the myocardium.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To assess the pathogenetic importance of capillary damage and its relationship with degenerating muscle fibers in dermatomyositis (DM), an electron microscope study of eight muscle biopsy specimens (adult and juvenile forms) and seven muscle specimens from patients with other neuro-muscular diseases was conducted. There was a 49% reduction of capillaries in the muscle specimens of DM patients. Capillary damage also was more frequent in the DM group than in control group (p〈0.001). We found a striking relation between capillary and muscle damage in the DM group (p〈0.002) but not in the control group. The diagnostic value of undulating tubules within endothelial cells is also discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7209
    Keywords: estrogen ; endothelial cell ; integrins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Premenopausal women have a lower cardiovascular risk and a higher incidence of several autoimmune diseases involving blood vessels than men. Although the precise effects of estrogens on the cardiovascular system are largely unknown, recent data suggest that estrogens can exert direct regulatory effects on endothelial cells. In the present study, we show that 17β-estradiol increases human umbilical vein endothelial cell attachment to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin-1, type IV collagen, type I collagen, and fibronectin. Estradiol enhanced adhesion most significantly to laminin-1 and to fibronectin-derived synthetic peptides containing an RGD sequence. Upon exposure to estradiol, an increase in β1, α5 and α6 integrin mRNA was observed in subconfluent cells which was abrogated by treatment with cycloheximide. This increase was followed by a later enhancement in surface expression of the above integrins. In addition, integrin-mediated signaling was also enhanced by estrogens since an increase in tyrosine-phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase induced by cell attachment was observed in estrogen-treated endothelial cells. Since integrins have an important role in mediating endothelial cell attachment, migration and differentiation, the increase in integrin expression and function induced by estradiol may be an important mechanism through which estrogens can promote neovascularization and vessel repair.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Trichosporon beigelii is a fungus which usually produces cutaneous involvement in immunocompetent hosts, being rarely reported to cause systemic infection. A case of fungemia and metastasic pneumonia caused byTrichosporon beigelii in a trauma patient is reported.
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