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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The immune status of breast cancer patients was followed during antiestrogen treatment for at least 1 year or until progression of the disease. Twelve postmenopausal women with advanced estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer were treated with a novel antiestrogen, toremifene. Immune functions were determined before the start of the treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months. For NK cell cytotoxicity testing there were 74 healthy controls and for T cell subset measurements 28 healthy controls. No statistically significant changes in the T cell subsets or NK cell cytotoxicity were observed during treatment. However, throughout toremifene treatment patients had fewer CD4 cells (T helper lymphocytes) than did the controls. Cancer patients had higher pretreatment B cell values than the controls,P = 0.01, but during the first months of toremifene treatment B cell values decreased and remained within the normal range thereafter. A positive effect on mitogen-stimulation tests with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA) was observed during the first months of treatment (P = 0.01 for PHA and 0.03 for log [ConA] and a stabilization at the higher level thereafter. These results indicate that toremifene has a stimulatory effect on cell-mediated immunity in breast cancer patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; endocrine treatment ; antiestrogens ; toremifene ; triphenylethylenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The antitumor activity of the new triphenylethylene drug toremifene has been studied in advanced breast cancer of postmenopausal women as first line treatment at dose levels of 20, 60, and 240 mg, and as second line or later treatment at high dose levels of 200–240 mg. The response rates (complete + partial response) have been 21% with 20 mg (14 patients), 52% with 60 mg (93 patients in three separate trials), and 68% with 240 mg (38 patients) as first line treatment. After failure on previous therapy (hormonal or chemotherapy) the response rates have been about 10% with 200 mg of toremifene (71 patients in two different trials). In patients whose disease had previously responded to tamoxifen with at least stabilization, the response rate with toremifene has been 23%; but among unselected patients, including patients progressing during adjuvant tamoxifen, the response rate (CR + PR) with toremifene in tamoxifen failures has been 3%. If long lasting (more than 5 months) stabilization of the disease is also considered, a further 20% of previously treated patients have benefitted from toremifene. The treatment has been well tolerated at all dose levels. The most reported side effects have been hot flushes (8–19%) and nausea (8%). 0–6% of patients in different trials have interrupted the treatment because of side effects
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: antiestrogen ; toremifene ; high dose ; breast cancer ; postmenopausal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The efficacy of high dose toremifene (240 mg daily) in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer is investigated in this ongoing study. At present, 38 patients are fully evaluable. Ten patients have CR (26%), 16 PR (42%) (objective response rate 68%), 8 NC (21%), and 4 PD (11%). Most objective responses are in soft tissue tumors (14/17, 82%). The response rate is equally high in patients with positive or unknown estrogen receptor (ER) status. Median duration of responses and survival are not yet evaluable. Of 48 patients evaluable for side-effects, 22 (46%) experienced some kind of toxicity, which was mild in 64% of cases, moderate in 29%, and mostly of estrogenic type. The study will continue to confirm the results thus far obtained.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; cholesterol ; triglycerides ; tamoxifen ; toremifene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Tamoxifen decreases serum cholesterol (S-cholesterol) level about 10% and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (S-LDL) 15–20%, but in most studies it has increased serum triglyceride levels and had little effect on serum high-density cholesterol (S-HDL). The effect of another antiestrogen, toremifene, on the serum lipid profile has not been completely studied. We monitored serum lipid levels longitudinally in 141 axillary node-positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients who received randomly either 40 mg toremifene or 20 mg tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for 36 months, and in 34 postmenopausal women who received no adjuvant systemic therapy after surgery for axillary node-negative breast cancer. No significant differences were found between the drugs in their effects on S-cholesterol, LDL, HDL, or triglyceride levels, or on the cholesterol-to-HDL or LDL-to-HDL ratios. For both drugs the S-cholesterol and S-LDL absolute lowering effect was the greater the higher the pretreatment level. For a patient with a median pretreatment value, toremifene decreased S-cholesterol 6% and tamoxifen 13%, and S-LDL decreased by 13% and 23%, respectively, at 6 months of therapy. Six months after stopping three-year antiestrogen therapy S- cholesterol and S-LDL levels had returned to the pretreatment levels. In conclusion, we found no major differences between 40 mg toremifene and 20 mg of tamoxifen in their effect on the serum lipid levels, which return to the pretreatment levels within 6 months after cessation of therapy.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: advanced breast cancer ; antiestrogenic therapy ; tamoxifen resistance ; second-line treatment ; toremifene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifty patients with advanced breast cancer refractory to prior tamoxifen therapy were assigned to investigational treatment with high-dose toremifene administered 120 mg orally twice a day. Treatment was generally well tolerated. The majority (80%) of the patients had no side effects, and among the remaining 10 patients reported side effects were mostly mild and/or transient. Two objective tumor responses were observed: one complete response (CR), duration 6.2 months, and one partial response (PR), duration 8 months. The response rate was thus 4% (95% CI: 0.5 to 14%). In addition 3 patients experienced a mixed response, some metastatic sites responding, while at other sites disease progressed; 22 patients had disease stabilization for 〉 2 months. A subset analysis disclosed that a small subgroup of patients, including 7 patients in this study, who had achieved CR at some of the sites during preceding tamoxifen therapy, experienced a long progressionfree time during high dose toremifene treatment. The median time to progression in this subgroup of patients was 9.4 months (95% CI: 3.8 to 9.4) as opposed to 2.1 months (95% CI: 2.0 to 2.8) for all the remaining 43 patients, which is a significant decrease in disease progression (p 〈 0.03). Such results reveal that although this kind of second-line hormonal treatment with high dose toremifene cannot be recommended for all tamoxifen failures, there might be a subset of patients, i.e. those who achieve CR in some lesion during tamoxifen therapy, who benefit from this type of treatment.
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