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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Prosthetic outcome and patient satisfaction were evaluated in order to investigate whether there is a need or advantage to splint two implants in the mandible retaining a hinging overdenture. This study included 36 fully edentulous patients randomly divided into three groups according to the attachment system they received: magnets, ball attachments or straight bars (reference group). None of the implants failed during the whole observation period in any of the groups. After 5 years of observation, the Bar group presented the highest retention capacity and the least prosthetic complications but revealed more mucositis and gingival hyperplasia. Patient satisfaction rated similar for all groups although the Magnet group showed lower retention forces. All patients would repeat the same treatment even though the majority of the Magnet group would prefer a more retentive solution because of limited denture stability.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The innervation of skin and oral mucosa plays a major physiological role in exteroception. It also has a clinical interest as illustrated by sensory changes after neurosurgical procedures. These sensory changes often rely only on the patients' subjective reports, although objective assessments are possible. This review compares the neurophysiological features of the trigeminal sensory pathways with those of cutaneous sensory innervation. In this review, three receptor groups will be discussed: mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors and nociceptors. Differences between receptors in the glabrous skin, the hairy skin and the oral mucosa will be highlighted. Sensory testing devices have been developed to quantify psychophysiological parameters such as the threshold level for receptor activation upon mechanical stimulation, but such devices have been merely developed to determine the threshold of skin receptors (tactile, thermal). Later on, some have been adapted to suit the particularities of the oral environment. This review attempts to compare the available literature on test devices for oral versus cutaneous tactile function. It summarizes what is common or rather particular to the devices used to study either cutaneous or oral receptors.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A series of 1.56 consecutive fully edentulous patients were rehabilitated by means of fixed prostheses on either 4 or 6 screw-shaped titanium implants. This retrospective study calculated survival rates for both prostheses and individual implants. Only patients with a 10-year follow-up were considered. The implant lengths were 10 (90%) or 7 mm. They were all inserted after pretapping. In the mandible 13 and 59 prostheses were installed on respectively 4 and 6 implants. In the upper jaw the respective numbers were 14 and 70. Both groups (4 versus 6 implants) were age- and gender-matched. A reduced jaw bone volume was the major reason for limiting the number of implants to 4. Although a tendency existed for an increased failure rate in patients with only 4 implants, the survival rate for both individual implants and prostheses was the same in both groups at the end of the 10-year observation period. The present tendency of some clinicians to install as many implants as possible in full edentulism should be seriously questioned.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The Periotest® device was used to evaluate the damping characteristics of different bone-to-implant interfaces of Brånemark implants. Implant and abutment lengths were found to have a significant influence on Periotest value (PTV). There was no statistical difference between PTVs of implants located in the anterior and posterior areas of the same jaw at abutment connection. No differences were found between PTVs of standard and self-tapping implants. PTVs at abutment connection were highly influenced by the bone quality. The contact with two corticals, one at each extremity of the implant, was of a greater influence in the maxillary than in the mandibular jaw, indicating a firmer anchorage between the bicortical implants and the surrounding bone. A proaressive decrease of PTVs over time was observed, significant up to 5 years of loading.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has been documented that the long-term clinical outcome of the Brånemark® system is very favourable. However, failures do occur before and after loading. This study examined the differences in marginal bone loss between standard and self-tapping fixtures and attempted to explain excessive marginal bone loss or loss of osseointegration during the first 3 years of loading. Marginal bone loss (scored on long cone radiographs) and fixture failure rate were compared for different fixture designs. For standard fixtures, in comparison with self-tapping fixtures, the failure rate was clearly higher before as well as after loading. However, for successful fixtures no difference in marginal bone loss was observed. For the conical fixtures an increased marginal bone loss around the smooth part was observed. The effect of fixture overload, marginal bone height and loss of osseointegration was examined in 69 patients with 1 and 15 patients with 2 fixed full prostheses, and in 9 patients with an overdenture in the upper jaw. Excessive marginal bone loss (more than 1 mm) after the first year of loading and/or fixture loss correlated well with the presence of overload due to a lack of anterior contact. the presence of parafunctional activity and osseointegrated full fixed prostheses in both jaws.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: For several years, osseointegrated implant-supported overdentures have been used in the rehabilitation of full edentulism with excellent results, at least in the lower jaw. This study involved 3 groups of patients with different prosthetic reconstructions:(1) mandibular overdentures supported by 2 implants connected by a bar (30 patients), (2) mandibular fixed prostheses supported by 4–6 implants (25 patients) and (3) mandibular complete dentures without implant support as controls (85 patients). The primary aim of this study was to examine on orthopantomograms (by means of the area index to minimize distortion and magnification errors), posterior mandibular ridge resorption in the 3 treatment groups. The present data demonstrated a minimal posterior mandibular ridge resorption in patients with fixed implant-supported prostheses. A more considerableposterior ridge resorption was observed in the complete denture group and especially in the overdenture wearers. For the latter, the annual posterior jaw bone resorption after the post-extraction remodeling period of 6 months, was 2- to 3-fold that of full denture wearers. When patients were edentulous for more than 10 years, the difference between the 2 latter groups disappeared. It is suggested that although the overdenture design on 2 implants offers advantages from a financial and failure rate point of view, its indications in younger patients should cautiously be evaluated in a long-term perspective concerning posterior mandibular bone resorption.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This investigation is the result of a multicenter research project between the Catholic University of Leuven and the University of Madrid with the purpose of studying histometrically and ultrastructurally periimplant marginal tissue reactions in medium-term Brånemark implants. 12 patients were selected and distributed according to predefined clinical and radiological parameters into a periimplant infection group (A) and a non-periimplant infection group (B). Biopsies were taken from these patients and analyzed by means of microscopy (LM), histometry (HM) and transmision electron microscopy (TEM). With LM group A showed pathological features consistent with an advanced gingivitis lesion, while group B showed signs of healthy gingiva in the connective tissue and vauolae formation in the epithelium. With HM, group A showed significantly higher transmigration of inflammatory cells in the epithelium than group B. In the connective tissue, group A showed a higher % of inflammatory infiltrate with significantly higher numbers of plasma cells and mononuclear cells than group B. With TEM, group A showed an ultrastructural picture consistent with plaque-induced periodontitis, while group B showed a rather healthy connective tissue and vacuolae formation in the epithelium. These results suggest that supra-crestal marginal tissues around osseointegrated implants react to plaque bacteria similarly to periodontal tissues around teeth by chronic inflammation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: For several radiological examinations, a clinician can select between conventional and spiral computed tomography. Using both techniques, this study aimed at evaluating the difference in absorbed doses when examining a single lateral jaw segment in a human cadaver head and Rando phantom. The present study involved the placement of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips (GR-200) in the thyroid gland, and bilaterally, in the parotid and submandibular glands and the lenses of the eyes in both a human cadaver and a Rando phantom at corresponding locations. Consecutive conventional spiral tomographic examinations were carried out in both the left upper and lower premolar area, using a Cranex TOME® multifunctional unit. Each examination consisted of 4 slices with a 2 mm slice thickness and exposure parameters of 57 kV, 56 seconds and 1.6–2.0 mA. Regarding spiral computed tomography (CT), a Somatom Plus S® scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), with a slice thickness of 1 mm with settings at 120 kV and 165 mA, was used on both phantoms and separately in the upper and lower jaw. With conventional tomography, the findings of the present study showed that the parotid and submandibular glands on the side near the X-ray tube received the highest dose, both for the cadaver head (doses ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 mGy) and the phantom (doses ranging from 0.6 to 2.6 mGy). For CT of the upper jaw, the highest doses were delivered to the parotid glands with an average absorbed dose of 9.2 and 10.6 mGy for the cadaver head and phantom, respectively. The submandibular glands received the highest doses during CT examination of the lower jaw with an average of 7.8 and 12.9 mGy for the cadaver head and phantom, respectively. It appears from the present investigation that if small edentulous regions are examined, radiation doses during conventional tomography remain much lower than during CT imaging. However, when multiple tomographic cuts are required, a spiral CT examination can replace a series of conventional examinations, especially in cases such as the rehabilitation of an edentulous upper jaw or a more complex surgery.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives: Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the key pathogens in the development of periodontitis, produces a number of virulence factors that might explain its pathogenicity. One of them is the ability to adhere and invade pocket epithelium. The aim of this study was to follow, over time, the association of P. gingivalis and consequent morphological changes of the pocket epithelium cells.Material and Methods: The association capacity of four P. gingivalis serotypes [K1, K2, K4, K- (nonencapsulated)] with in vitro cultured mono-layers from periodontal pocket epithelial cells of patients with periodontitis, was followed by fluorescence microscopy and bacterial culture. The contact time between bacteria and epithelium cells ranged from 45 min to 8 h. The microscopic evaluation allowed differentiation between dead and living cells (bacteria as well as epithelium) and description of the morphological changes after association.Results: A highly significant difference in the number of associating bacteria was found between dead and living epithelium cells, and between non-capsulated and capsulated strains. A significant increase in the proportion of dead pocket epithelium cells was found with prolonged association time. The morphological changes (rounding of the epithelial cell, detachment from the glass cover-slip and loss of intercellular contact) occurred faster for mono-layers inoculated with the non-encapsulated P. gingivalis strain.Conclusions: This study indicates that dead pocket epithelium cells harbor more P. gingivalis cells, and that a positive correlation exists between contact time and cell death. For the P. ginigvalis species, non-encapsulated strains associate in higher number. As a result, the damage they cause to the host cell seems to occur faster than occurs in encapsulated strains. As such, cell death can be seen as the end-result of bacterial association.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Several publications have reported an increased susceptibility for root caries after periodontal therapy. It has been suggested that newly exposed roots were less resistant to cariogenic species. This study examined the hypothesis that the increased susceptibility could also be related to an intra-oral microbial shift during the initial phase of the periodontal therapy from a perio-pathogenic to a more cariogenic flora. 10 patients with severe periodontitis were followed for 8 months after thorough scaling and root planing in combination with optimal plaque control. At baseline and after 4 and 8 months, samples were taken from the saliva, the tongue dorsum and the supragingival interdental spaces. These samples were cultured both aerobically and anaerobically in order to determine the total number of colony forming units (CFU) per sample as well as the number of CFU of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species. Oral hygiene parameters were recorded at the same visits. Finally, at baseline and at the 8 months follow-up, changes in caries activity and periodontal health were registered. Although the total number of aerobic and anaerobic CFU in samples from the tongue and the saliva remained nearly constant over the entire observation period (variations within 0.5 log), significant (p≤0.05) increases in the number of S. mutans could be detected, especially at month 8. The significant decrease in the total number of anaerobic CFU in samples from the teeth was not associated with a reduction in the number of S. mutans, so that also for this niche the relative proportion of the latter increased. The number of lactobacilli species for the different niches showed only negligible changes (within 0.5 log values), except for samples from the teeth for which a small (1 log), but statistically significant (p〈0.01), reduction could be detected. The periodontal conditions improved for all patients, but the caries activity could not be arrested. These findings seem to indicate that the increased caries susceptibility after periodontal therapy might partially be explained by a significant increase in the number of S. mutans due to ecological changes within the oral cavity. The clinical consequence of this observation would be to advocate a more strict caries preventive program during initial periodontal therapy.
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