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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is sensitive to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK inhibitors) such as crizotinib, but resistance invariably develops, often with progression in the brain. Ceritinib is a more potent ALK inhibitor than crizotinib in vitro, crosses the blood-brain barrier in vivo, and shows clinical responses in patients with crizotinib-resistant disease. We aimed to assess whole-body activity of ceritinib in both ALK inhibitor-pretreated and ALK inhibitor-naive patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. METHODS: ASCEND-1 was an open-label, phase 1 trial that recruited patients from 20 academic hospitals or cancer centres in 11 countries in Europe, North America, and Asia-Pacific. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with ALK-rearranged locally advanced or metastatic cancer that had progressed despite standard therapy (or for which no effective standard therapy existed), who had at least one measurable lesion at baseline. The primary objective (to determine the maximum tolerated dose) has been reported previously. This updated analysis includes all patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC given oral ceritinib at the recommended dose of 750 mg/day in the dose-escalation and expansion phases. Here we report the secondary outcomes of overall response, duration of response, and progression-free survival, analysed in all patients who received at least one 750 mg dose of ceritinib. Exploratory analyses included retrospective analysis of intracranial activity by independent neuroradiologists, in patients with untreated or locally treated neurologically stable brain metastases at baseline. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of ceritinib. This study is no longer recruiting patients; however, treatment and follow-up are ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01283516. FINDINGS: Between Jan 24, 2011, and July 31, 2013, 255 patients were enrolled and received at least one dose of ceritinib 750 mg/day, of whom 246 had ALK-rearranged NSCLC. At data cutoff (April 14, 2014), median follow-up was 11.1 months (IQR 6.7-15.2) and 147 (60%) patients had discontinued treatment, 98 (40%) as a result of disease progression. An overall response was reported in 60 (72% [95% CI 61-82]) of 83 ALK inhibitor-naive patients and 92 (56% [49-64]) of 163 ALK inhibitor-pretreated patients. Median duration of response was 17.0 months (95% CI 11.3-non-estimable [NE]) in ALK inhibitor-naive patients and 8.3 months (6.8-9.7) in ALK inhibitor-pretreated patients. Median progression-free survival was 18.4 months (95% CI 11.1-NE) in ALK inhibitor-naive patients and 6.9 months (5.6-8.7) in ALK inhibitor-pretreated patients. Of 94 patients with retrospectively confirmed brain metastases and at least one post-baseline MRI or CT tumour assessment, intracranial disease control was reported in 15 (79% [95% CI 54-94]) of 19 ALK inhibitor-naive patients and in 49 (65% [54-76]) of 75 ALK inhibitor-pretreated patients. Of these 94 patients, 11 had measurable brain lesions and no previous radiotherapy to the brain, six of whom achieved a partial intracranial response. Serious adverse events were recorded in 117 (48%) of 246 patients. The most common grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities were increased alanine aminotransferase (73 [30%] patients) and increased aspartate aminotransferase (25 [10%]). The most common grade 3-4 non-laboratory adverse events were diarrhoea and nausea, both of which occurred in 15 (6%) patients. Two on-treatment deaths during the study were deemed to be related to study drug by the investigators, one due to interstitial lung disease and one as a result of multiorgan failure that occurred in the context of infection and ischaemic hepatitis. INTERPRETATION: The durable whole-body responses reported, together with the intracranial activity, support a clinical benefit for treatment with ceritinib in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC who have received crizot
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26973324
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELL LUNG-CANCER ; MUTATION ; ACQUIRED-RESISTANCE ; EGFR ; CLINICAL RESISTANCE ; GEFITINIB ; KINASE INHIBITOR ; EML4-ALK FUSION GENE ; ALK ; CRIZOTINIB
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangement is sensitive to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, but resistance invariably develops. Ceritinib (LDK378) is a new ALK inhibitor that has shown greater antitumor potency than crizotinib in preclinical studies. METHODS: In this phase 1 study, we administered oral ceritinib in doses of 50 to 750 mg once daily to patients with advanced cancers harboring genetic alterations in ALK. In an expansion phase of the study, patients received the maximum tolerated dose. Patients were assessed to determine the safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and antitumor activity of ceritinib. Tumor biopsies were performed before ceritinib treatment to identify resistance mutations in ALK in a group of patients with NSCLC who had had disease progression during treatment with crizotinib. RESULTS: A total of 59 patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation phase. The maximum tolerated dose of ceritinib was 750 mg once daily; dose-limiting toxic events included diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, elevated aminotransferase levels, and hypophosphatemia. This phase was followed by an expansion phase, in which an additional 71 patients were treated, for a total of 130 patients overall. Among 114 patients with NSCLC who received at least 400 mg of ceritinib per day, the overall response rate was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48 to 67). Among 80 patients who had received crizotinib previously, the response rate was 56% (95% CI, 45 to 67). Responses were observed in patients with various resistance mutations in ALK and in patients without detectable mutations. Among patients with NSCLC who received at least 400 mg of ceritinib per day, the median progression-free survival was 7.0 months (95% CI, 5.6 to 9.5). CONCLUSIONS: Ceritinib was highly active in patients with advanced, ALK-rearranged NSCLC, including those who had had disease progression during crizotinib treatment, regardless of the presence of resistance mutations in ALK. (Funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01283516.).
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24670165
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Adult respiratory distress syndrome ; Neutropenia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Seven episodes of adult respiratory distress syndrome, occurring in leukemic patients with longstanding (average 11 days) and severe neutropenia (〈0.1×109/l) are described. Pathologocial and clinical data give further support to the view that the complement-neutrophil pathway is not the only mechanism in generating clinical ARDS in leukemia patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: combined modality treatment ; emission computed tomography ; lymphatic metastasis ; non-small-cell lung carcinoma ; outcome assessment ; staging lung neoplasms ; X-ray computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Clearance of viable tumour cells in mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) by induction chemotherapy (IC) – so-called MLN downstaging – is an important aspect of combined-modality treatment of N2-NSCLC. Reassessment of MLN after IC by CT is far from accurate, while re-mediastinoscopy is often technically difficult. Based on our previous results with FDG-PET in the initial staging of N2 disease, we investigated whether PET after IC could be helpful in predicting MLN downstaging and therapeutic outcome. Patients and methods: Patients underwent a first PET before IC. After three cycles of platinum-based IC, a second PET was performed before locoregional therapy, either surgery or radiotherapy. PET results were correlated with pathology of the MLN when available, and with survival. Results: Fifteen surgically staged N2-NSCLC patients were prospectively included. Locoregional therapy after IC consisted of surgery in nine and radiotherapy in six. Correlation with pathology of the nine resection specimens revealed that the accuracy of PET in predicting MLN downstaging was 100% (six true negatives; three true positives), whereas for CT it was only 67% (two false pos; one false neg). Reassessment with PET after IC was correlated with the outcome after the entire combined modality treatment. Survival was significantly better in patients with mediastinal clearance (P = 0.01) or with a greater than 50% decrease in the Standardised Uptake Value (SUV) of the primary tumour (P = 0.03) after IC. Conclusions: Mediastinal PET after IC accurately assesses pathologic MLN downstaging in N2-NSCLC. The data suggest a possible correlation of early survival with mediastinal clearance and an important decrease of SUV in the primary tumour. Confirmation of these preliminary findings would establish PET as a useful non-invasive tool to select patients for intensive locoregional treatment after IC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: hyponatremia ; inappropriate ADH syndrome ; review ; small-cell-lung carcinoma ; tumour lysis syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A patient with a small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) developed an asymptomatichyponatremia, with all features of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretichormone secretion (SIADH), two days after the start of his first cycle ofchemotherapy with vindesine, ifosfamide and cisplatin. Progression of thetumour with an increase in paraneoplastic SIADH, or drug-induced causes ofhyponatremia, could be ruled out by his further clinical course. The event wasinterpreted as a consequence of ADH release during the initial tumour celllysis after effective chemotherapy. The occurrence of hyponatremia during the initial phase of chemotherapy forSCLC should be interpreted with caution. Although it is most commonly due toan increase in paraneoplastic ADH secretion reflecting ineffective therapy,it can also be due to release of ADH from malignant cells in the period ofrapid tumour lysis, reflecting effective therapy. Based on this rare occurrence, a review of the aetiology, clinicalfindings, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of SIADH in general is presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: combined modality treatment ; induction chemotherapy ; lung surgery ; N2-disease ; non-small-cell lung carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: In the pioneer data from the Memorial-Sloan-Kettering group, preoperative mitomycin-C–vindesine–platinum (MVP) induction chemotherapy in N2-NSCLC was accompanied with substantial pulmonary toxicity. In this study, the efficacy and toxicity of three-drug VIP induction chemotherapy, the pathologic response in resection specimens, the early survival and relapse patterns are examined. Patients and methods: Between June 1995 and March 1997, 39 consecutive patients with pathology proven N2-NSCLC were treated with three cycles of VIP induction, followed by definitive locoregional treatment (resection and mediastinal dissection or radical radiotherapy). Several patients had unfavorable prognostic characteristics with respect to clinical and biological findings, tumor location and bulk of disease. Results: The response rate to chemotherapy was 59% (95% Confidence Interval 34–75). Twenty-three responding patients had radical locoregional treatment: radical radiotherapy in four, resection in 19. Downstaging was present in nine of the 19 resection specimens, with two pathologic complete responses. The median survival time (MST) of all patients is 19 months, with a projected two-year survival of 49%. In patients responsive to chemotherapy who received definitive local treatment, the MST is not yet reached, and the projected two-year survival is 57%. Relapses were mainly distant, with isolated brain relapse as a disturbing finding. The main toxicity's were leukopenia and vomiting, but they were manageable. In contrast with MVP, no severe pulmonary toxicity occurred. Conclusions: VIP is a suitable induction regimen for N2-NSCLC, demonstrating a good activity and very acceptable toxicity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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