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  • 1
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the framework of the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY), ten magnetotelluric stations were installed between November 1992 and November 1994 along a 1200-km-long meridian profile, between Lamto (latitude 6.2°N, CôCte d’Ivoire) to the south and Tombouctou (latitude 16.7°N, Mali) to the north. These stations measured digitally the three components of the magnetic field and the two components of the telluric electric field, and operated over a period of 20 months. The magnetic data is used to study the features of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in West African longitude. The measurement of the telluric electric field variations will be presented elsewhere. Hourly mean values are used to study the morphological structure of the regular diurnal variation SR of the three components (H, D, and Z) of the earth magnetic field and to characterize the EEJ during magnetically quiet days. The occurrences of the counter-electrojet (CEJ) are set forth, emphasizing its seasonal variability. Assumed to be a current ribbon, the EEJ main parameters (the position of its center, its width, and the amplitude of its current density at the center) are determined. A preliminary analysis of the time variations of these parameters is presented over period of 20 months (from January 1993 to August 1994). Results are compared with those obtained during previous experiments of the same kind.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Equatorial electrojet ; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions ; Electric fields and currents ; Auroral ionosphere ; Ionospheric disturbances
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Geomagnetic storm-time variations often occur coherently at high latitude and the day-side dip equator where they affect the normal eastward Sq field. This paper presents an analysis of ground magnetic field and ionospheric electrodynamic data related to the geomagnetic storm which occured on 27 May 1993 during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment. This storm-signature analysis on the auroral, mid-latitude and equatorial ground field and ionospheric electrodynamic data leads to the identification of a sensitive response of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) to large-scale auroral return current: this response consists in a change of the eastward electric field during the pre-sunrise hours (0400–0600 UT) coherently to the high-, mid-, and equatorial-latitude H decrease and the disappearance of the EEJ irregularities between the time-interval 0800–0950 UT. Subsequent to the change in h’F during pre-sunrise hours, the observed foF2 increase revealed an enhancement of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) caused by the high-latitude penetrating electric field. The strengthening of these irregularities attested by the Doppler frequency increase tracks the H component at the equator which undergoes a rapid increase around 0800 UT. The ΔH variations observed at the equator are the sum of the following components: SR, DP, DR, DCF and DT.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Electromagnetic (Transient and time domain) Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (geomagnetic induction) Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the framework of the French-Ivorian participation to the IEEY, a network of 10 electromagnetic stations were installed at African longitudes. The aim of this experiment was twofold: firstly, to study the magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet on the one hand, and secondly, to characterize the induced electric field variations on the other hand. The first results of the magnetic field investigations were presented by Doumouya and coworkers. Those of the electric field experiment will be discussed in this study. The electromagnetic experiment will be described. The analysis of the electromagnetic transient variations was conducted in accordance with the classical distinction between quiet and disturbed magnetic situations. A morphological analysis of the recordings is given, taking into consideration successively quiet and disturbed magnetic situations, with the results interpreted in terms of the characterization of external and internal sources. Particular attention was paid to the effects of the source characteristics on the induced field of internal origin, and to the bias they may consequently cause to the results of electromagnetic probing of the Earth; the source effect in electromagnetic induction studies. During quiet magnetic situations, our results demonstrated the existence of two different sources. One of these, the SRE source, was responsible for most of the magnetic diurnal variation and corresponded to the well-known magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet. The other source (the SR*E source) was responsible for most of the electric diurnal variation, and was also likely to be an ionospheric source. Electric and magnetic diurnal variations are therefore related to different ionospheric sources, and interpreting the electric diurnal variation as induced by the magnetic field diurnal variation is not relevant. Furthermore, the magnetotelluric probing of the upper mantle at dip equator latitudes with the electromagnetic diurnal variation is consequently impossible to perform. In the case of irregular variations, the source effect related to the equatorial electrojet is also discussed. A Gaussian model of equatorial electrojet was considered, and apparent resistivities were computed for two models of stratified Earth corresponding to the average resistive structure of the two tectonic provinces crossed by the profile: a sedimentary basin and a cratonic shield. The apparent resistivity curves were found to depend significantly on both the model used and the distance to the center of the electrojet. These numerical results confirm the existence of a daytime source effect related to the equatorial electrojet. Furthermore, we show that the results account for the observed differences between daytime and night-time apparent resistivity curves. In particular, it was shown that electromagnetic probing of the Earth using the classical Cagniard-Tikhonov magnetotelluric method is impossible with daytime recordings made at dip latitude stations.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis ; cry1B ; Insect resistance ; Oryza sativa L. ; Synthetic gene ; Transgenic plants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ba endotoxin, which was shown to exhibit a tenfold lower lethal concentration 50 (LC50) than Cry1Ac in a Striped Stem Borer (SSB) diet incorporation assay. The 1.950-bp synthetic cry1B gene, possessing an overall GC content of 58 %, was cloned under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter first intron and first exon regions. The resulting vector, designated as pUbi-cry1B, was transferred to two commercial Mediterranean cultivars of rice, Ariete and Senia, using microprojectile acceleration-mediated transformation. Thirty-two and 47 T0 events were generated in cvs. Ariete and Senia, respectively. Southern blot and immunoblot analyses allowed the identification of 7 Senia and 1 Ariete events harbouring both an intact gene cassette and expressing Cry1B at a level ranging from 0.01% to 0.4% of the total soluble proteins. Three Senia and 1 Ariete events were found to be protected against second instar SSB larvae in whole plant feeding assays, exhibiting 90–100% mortality 7 days after infestation. Spatial and temporal variation in transgene expression was further examined in resistant event 64 of cv. Ariete. Stable accumulation of Cry1B, representing 0.4% of the total soluble proteins, was observed over the T2 to T4 generations in leaf tissue 20, 40, 70 and 90 days after germination in both young and old leaves and in internodes. Ariete event 64 was found to be fully protected from attacks of third and fourth instar SSB larvae over subsequent generations.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-0633
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0031-9201
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neuroradiology 29 (1987), S. 407-407 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (BTI) was obtained from field-collected larvae of the saturniid moth, Hylesia metabus. This isolate was shown to belong to serotype H 14, and to produce a spherical parasporal body identical to that of the type strain of BTI. With an LC50 of 0.764 μg cm−2, this isolate was more toxic to H. metabus than the HD-1 strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (HD-1). These results demonstrate that BTI can be active against lepidopterous insects, a wider spectrum of activity than previously realized.
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