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  • 1
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In contrast to the Apennine Peninsula coast, the relatively rare occurrence of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus in the Balkan Peninsula (eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea) is probably due to the closeness of the steep mountains causing unsuitable hydrological conditions of streams and impeded access to the coast. Most specimens are probably represented by invaders carried from the Mediterranean and other regions of the Adriatic Sea. Morphology was similar to that recorded for the sea lampreys from other geographical regions.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 48 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Extraction of multiple third molar teeth can cause significant postoperative pain, swelling and trismus, which may result in delayed hospital discharge. We have examined the effect of a single prophylactic dose of oral dexamethasone 8 mg on these complications, in a randomised double-blind study of 50 adult patients. The number of extractions performed and the operative approach were standardised. Dexamethasone resulted in a significant reduction in pain 4 h postoperatively, and eliminated the need for opioid analgesia in the postoperative period. The incidence of severe swelling was also reduced significantly, but there was no effect an trismus. Postoperative nausea and vomiting were significantly lower in the dexamethasone group. We conclude that the use of prophylactic oral dexamethasone is useful in reducing postoperative analgesia requirements in this group of patients, and may facilitate surgery performed on a day case basis.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 45 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 40 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 39 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Sixty-nine patients undergoing upper and lower abdominal surgery were studied after operation to compare the analgesic effects of sublingual buprenorphine (0.4 mg) and slow release morphine sulphate tablets (MST, 20 mg) given 6 hourly in a double-blind, double-dummy trial. Both MST and buprenorphine produced satisfactory postoperative analgesia but the linear analogue pain scores were significantly lower on the second post operative day with MST.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A model lung system with a variable artificial constriction was used to quantify the changes in flow produced by the addition of helium to the gas mixture in the system. The tracheal concentration of helium obtained when administering 79% helium/21% oxygen to the system via conventional, disposable face masks was determined using a resuscitation dummy. The greatest proportion of the increase inflow through the orifice occurred at concentrations of helium up to 40%. A tracheal concentration of 40% helium could be obtained with all oxygen masks at fresh gas flow rates greater than 8 litres/minute. These findings will help to rationalise the administration of 79% helium/2 /% oxygen to patients with upper respiratory tract obstruction.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The frequency-place map of the horseshoe bat cochlea was studied with the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique involving focal injections into various, physiologically defined regions of cochlear nucleus (CN). The locations of labeled spiral ganglion cells and their termination sites on inner hair cells of the organ of Corti from injections into CN-regions responsive to different frequencies were analyzed in three dimensional reconstructions of the cochlea. Horseshoe bats from different geographical populations were investigated. They emit orientation calls with constant frequency (CF) components around 77 kHz (Rhinolophus rouxi from Ceylon) and 84 kHz (Rhinolophus rouxi from India) and their auditory systems are sharply tuned to the respective CF-components. The HRP-map shows that in both populations: (i) the frequency range around the CF-component of the echolocation signal is processed in the second half-turn of the cochlea, where basilar membrane (BM) is not thickened, secondary spiral lamina (LSS) is still present and innervation density is maximal; (ii) frequencies more than 5 kHz above the CF-component are processed in the first halfturn, where the thickened BM is accompanied by LSS and innervation density is low; (iii) frequencies below the spectral content of the orientation call are represented in apical turns showing no morphological specializations. The data demonstrate that the cochlea of horseshoe bats is normalized to the frequency of the individual specific CF-component of the echolocation call. The HRP-map can account for the overrepresentation of neurons sharply tuned to the CF-signal found in the central auditory system. A comparison of the HRP-map with a map derived with the ‘swollen nuclei technique’ following loud sound exposure (Bruns 1976b) reveals that the latter is shifted towards cochlear base by about 4 mm. This discrepancy warrants a new interpretation of the functional role of specialized morphological structures of the cochlea within the mechanisms giving rise to the exceptionally high frequency selectivity of the auditory system.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The frequency-place map of the cochlea of mustache bats was constructed by the analysis of HRP-transport patterns in spiral ganglion cells following iontophoretic tracer injections into cochlear nucleus regions responsive to different frequencies. The cochlea consists of 5 half turns (total length 14.3 mm) and the representation of certain frequency bands can be assigned to specific cochlear regions: 1. The broad high frequency range between 70 and 111 kHz is represented in the most basal half turn within only 3.2 mm. This region is terminated apically by a distinct narrowing of the scala vestibuli that coincides with a pronounced increase in basilar membrane (BM) thickness. 2. The narrow intermediate frequency range between 54 and 70 kHz is expanded onto 50% of cochlear length between 4.0 and 11.1 mm distance from apex. The frequency range around 60 kHz, where the tuning characteristics of the auditory system are exceptionally sharp, is located in the center of this expanded BM-region in the second half turn within a maximum of innervation density. These data can account for the vast overrepresentation of neurons sharply tuned to about 60 kHz at central stations of the auditory pathway. In the cochlear region just basal to the innervation maximum, where label from injections at 66 and 70 kHz was found, a number of morphological specializations coincide: the BM is maximally thickened, innervation density is low, the spiral ligament is locally enlarged, and the ‘thick lining’, a dense covering of the scala tympani throughout the basal halfturn, suddenly disappears. 3. Low frequencies up to 54 kHz are represented within the apical half turns over a 4 mm span of the basilar membrane. The data are compared to the cochlea of horseshoe bats and the possible functional role of the morphological discontinuities for sharp tuning and the generation of otoacoustic emissions is discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Recordings were made from single inferior colliculus neurons of two closely related bat species,Molossus ater andMolossus molossus, both emitting short CF-FM echolocation calls which differ only in frequency range. Employing pure tone stimuli, minimum thresholds, tuning curves, response patterns and spike count functions were measured and compared between the two species. 2. The audiograms (evoked potential measurements and distribution of single neuron thresholds) of both species are rather broadly tuned, but maximum auditory sensitivity is reached at different frequency ranges according to the different spectral content of the orientation calls. 3. Single unit data concerning tuning curves, Q10dB-values, response patterns and spike count functions are very similar in the samples obtained from the two molossid species and closely resemble data from bats using FM-orientation calls. 4. The inferior colliculus of molossids is tonotopically organized. Asymmetrical and symmetrical tuning curves were found. Q10dB-values rarely exceeded 20, and so are values known as characteristic for other mammals. The dominant response pattern class is the “phasic-on” type with no or low spontaneous activity. Spike count functions of the non-monotonic type prevail. 5. Data are compared with results from “long CF-FM-bats”, revealing striking species differences in frequency selectivity of single neurons and organization of the ascending auditory pathway. This suggests different strategies in information processing which are discussed as adaptations to the species specific orientation calls.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. In horseshoe bats temporal response patterns to pure tone stimuli (10–100 kHz, 20 ms duration, 0.5 ms rise/fall-time) of 149 cochlear nucleus units (DCN and PVCN) have been recorded. 2. Distribution of the units' Best Frequencies (BF): low frequency neurons 26% (BF 10–65 kHz); FM-frequency neurons 20% (BF 65–81 kHz, i.e. frequencies occurring in the FM-part of the bat's echo signal); filter frequency neurons 52% (BF 81–88 kHz, i.e. frequencies occurring in the CF-part of the bat's echo signal); high frequency neurons 2% (BF 〉 88 kHz) (Table 1). 3. According to PST-histograms the neurons were classified as: sustained responders (28%, Fig. 1D, E); transient responders (51%, Fig. 1A–C); negative responders (4%, Fig. 1F) and complex responders (17%, Fig. 2–4). In the latter class response patterns drastically change with stimulus frequency and intensity. These units have suppressory sidebands on one or both sides of the excitatory field, sometimes overlapping and enclosing the excitatory area (Fig. 2 and 4). Frequently excitatory response patterns display simultaneous inhibitory processes the latency and duration of which depend on stimulus parameters. 4. In a few complex responders two or more excitatory areas exist, the BF of which may be harmonically related (Fig. 3 and 4). 5. Tuning curves of four auditory nerve fibers are reported showing two separate excitatory areas: a broad less sensitive one from 37 to 79 kHz (low frequency tail) and a narrow, more sensitive one from 82 to 90 kHz (Fig. 5).
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