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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) are a highly conserved family of proteins consisting of several subtypes, among them the mammary-derived growth inhibitor (MDGI) which is quite homologous to or even identical with the heart-type FABP (H-FABP). The FABPs and MDGI have been suggested to be involved in intracellular fatty acid metabolism and trafficking. Recently, evidence for growth and differentiation regulating properties of MDGI and H-FABP was provided. Using four affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against bovine and human antigen preparations, the cellular localization of MDGI/H-FABP in human and mouse tissues and organs was studied. The antibodies were weakly cross-reactive with adipose tissue extracts known to lack H-FABP, but failed to react by Western blot analysis with liver-type FABP (L-FABP) and intestinal-type FABP (I-FABP). MDGI/H-FABP protein was mainly detected in myocardium, skeletal and smooth muscle fibres, lipid and/or steroid synthesising cells (adrenals, Leydig cells, sebaceous glands, lactating mammary gland) and terminally differentiated epithelia of the respiratory, intestinal and urogenital tracts. The results provide evidence that expression of H-FABP is associated with an irreversibly postmitotic and terminally differentiated status of cells. Since all the antisera employed showed spatially identical and qualitatively equal immunostaining, it is suggested that human, bovine and mouse MDGI/H-FABP proteins share highly homologous epitopes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Key words Irritant dermatitis ; Keratinocytes ; Sodium Dodecyl sulphate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Although the induction of acute irritant dermatitis by detergents has been studied extensively in recent years, our understanding of the cell biological events in the repair phase, and its relevance for the development of chronic irritant dermatitis is limited. Here we studied the reaction pattern of human skin to short-term application of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in a model that induced a minimal acute inflammatory reaction (absence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, PMN) and did not have cytopathic effects on the epidermal keratinocytes as determined by histological investigation. All parameters were measured up to 14 days after exposure to SDS. Application of SDS caused disturbances of barrier function as measured by transepidermal water loss and had vascular effects as judged by erythema. Several cell biological markers for epidermal growth and differentiation were examined by immunohistochemistry. A rapid and strong induction of the cornified envelope precursor protein involucrin was seen in the stratum spinosum, with a peak at 24 h. Within 24 h a strong upregulation of epidermal fatty acid binding protein (E-FABP) was noted, with a peak at 7 days after injury. Cellular proliferation in the basal layer was increased fivefold as assessed by nuclear staining for the Ki-67 antigen, showing a peak at 48 h. Surprisingly, no significant induction of cytokeratin 16 and SKALP/elafin expression, two markers associated with epidermal hyperproliferation and inflammation, was seen. These findings suggest that the cellular changes following exposure to detergent are distinct from those seen in other forms of skin injury. We would speculate that the epidermal response to detergent exposure is primarily directed at restoration of barrier function.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variation in the porcine H-FABP gene, a candidate gene for meat quality traits in pigs. Lambda phages containing the porcine H-FABP gene were isolated by plaque hybridization with human H-FABP cDNA. The coding and flanking intronic sequences of the porcine H-FABP gene were determined as well as 1.6 kb of the 5′ upstream region. The various potential regulatory sequences in this region are in accordance with the function and expression of the protein in muscle and mammary tissue. Furthermore, comparison with the homolog region of the mouse identified a highly conserved 13-bp element (CTTCCT [A/C] TTTCGG) that may be involved in regulation of expression. The porcine H-FABP gene was localized on Chromosome (Chr) 6 by porcine sequence-specific PCR on DNA from a pig/rodent cell hybrid panel. In addition, part of the H-FABP gene was screened for genetic variation by PCR-RFLP analysis. Three PCR-RFLPs were detected, one in the upstream region (HinfI) and two in the second intron (HaeIII and MspI). In most pig breeds the corresponding alleles have a variable distribution, possibly a consequence of selective breeding. This genetic variation will enable us to investigate the role of the H-FABP locus in porcine production and meat quality traits.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The porcine A-FABP gene (FABP4) was isolated and sequenced to study the role of A-FABP in the differentiation of intramuscular fat (IMF) accretion in pigs. The coding sequence of the porcine A-FABP gene is highly conserved across human, mouse, and rat. Moreover, all the functionally important amino acids are conserved. This high similarity extends into the first 270 bp of the 5′ upstream region. Within this region, a 56-bp nucleotide sequence was completely identical with the corresponding sequence in the mouse A-FABP gene, which contains the transcription factor binding sites for C/EBP and AP-1, and is implicated in the differentiation-dependent regulation of A-FABP. The A-FABP gene was assigned to porcine Chromosome (Chr) 4 by a porcine sequence-specific PCR on a cell hybrid panel, fully consistent with comparative mapping data with human and mouse. In the first intron of the porcine A-FABP gene, a microsatellite sequence was detected that was polymorphic for all six pig breeds tested. This genetic variation within the A-FABP gene was associated with differences in IMF content and possibly growth in a Duroc population, whereas no effect on backfat thickness and drip loss of the meat were detected. A considerable and significant contrast of approximately 1% IMF was observed between certain genotype classes. We conclude that the A-FABP locus is involved in the regulation of intramuscular fat accretion in Duroc pigs.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Human skeletal muscle cells Copper toxicity ; Sodium homeostasis Calcium homeostasis ; Na+/K+-ATPase Na+/Ca2+-exchanger ; DTT ; TPEN
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Copper (Cu2+) intoxication has been shown to induce pathological changes in various tissues. The mechanism underlying Cu2+ toxicity is still unclear. It has been suggested that the Na+/K+-ATPase and/or a change of the membrane permeability may be involved. In this study we examined the effects of Cu2+ on the Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis of cultured human skeletal muscle cells using the ion-selective fluorescent probes Na+-binding benzofuran isophtalate (SBFI) and Fura-2, respectively. In addition, we measured the effect of Cu2+ on the Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Cu2+ and ouabain increase the cytoplasmic free Na+ concentration ([Na+]i). Subsequent addition of Cu2+ after ouabain does not affect the rate of [Na+]i increase. Cu2+ inhibits the Na+/K+-ATPase activity with an IC50 of 51 μM. The cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) remains unaffected for more than 10 min after the administration of Cu2+. Thereafter, [Ca2+]i increases as a result of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger operating in the reversed mode. The effects of Cu2+ on the Na+ homeostasis are reversed by the reducing and chelating agent dithiothreitol and the heavy metal chelator N,N,N′,N′,-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). In conclusion, SBFI is a good tool to examine Na+ homeostasis in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. Under the experimental conditions used, Cu2+ does not modify the general membrane permeability, but inhibits the Na+/K+-pump leading to an increase of [Na+]i. As a consequence the operation mode of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger reverses and [Ca2+]i rises.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: FABP ; monolayer ; fatty acid transfer ; equilibrium dialysis cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The possible property of fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) to transport fatty acid was investigated in various model systems with FABP preparations from liver and heart. An effect of FABP, however, was not detectable with a combination of oleic acid-loaded mitochondria and vesicles or liposomes due to the rapid spontaneous transfer. Therefore, the mitochondria were separated from the vesicles in an equilibrium dialysis cell. The spontaneous fatty acid transfer was much lower and addition of FABP resulted in an increase of fatty acid transport. Oleic acid was withdrawn from different types of monolayers by FABP with rates up to 10%/min. When two separate monolayers were used, FABP increased fatty acid transfer between these monolayers and an equilibrium was reached.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: fatty acid-protein interactions ; X-ray crystallography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The structure ofE. coli-derived rat intestinal fatty acid-binding protein has recently been refined to 1.2 Å without bound fatty acid and to 2.0 Å and 1.75 Å with bound hexadecanoate (palmitate) and 9Z-octadecenoate (oleate), respectively. The structure ofE. coli-derived human muscle fatty acid-binding protein has also been solved to 2.1 Å with a C16 bacterial fatty acid. Both proteins contain 10 anti-parallel β-strands in a+1, +1, +1... motif. The strands are arranged in two β-pleated sheets that are orthogonally oriented. In each case, the fatty acid is enclosed by the β-sheets and is bound to the proteins by feeble forces. These feeble forces consist of (i) a hydrogen bonding network between the fatty acid's carboxylate group, ordered solvent, and side chains of polar/ionizable amino acid residues; (ii) van der Waals contacts between the methylene chain of the fatty acid and the side chain atoms of hydrophobic and aromatic residues; (iii) van der Waals interactions between the ϖ methyl and the component methenyls of the phenyl side chain of a Phe which serves as an adjustable terminal sensor situated over a surface opening or portal connecting interior and exterior solvent; and (iv) van der Waals contacts between methylenes of the alkyl chain and oxygens of ordered waters that have been located inside the binding cavity. These waters are positioned over one face of the ligand and are held in place by hydrogen bonding with one another and with the side chains of protein's polar and ionizable residues. Binding of the fatty acid ligand is associated with minimal adjustments of the positions of main chain or side chain atoms. However, acquisition of ligand is associated with removal of ordered interior solvent suggesting that the free energy of dehydration of the binding site may be as important for the energy of the binding reaction as the free energy of stabilization of the fatty acid: protein complex.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Postnatal development ; Oxidative metabolism ; Enzyme histochemistry ; Fiber type ; Muscle, striated, skeletal ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The postnatal development, between 0 and 90 days, of three hindlimb muscles and diaphragm of the rat was investigated with respect to fiber types and diameter (histochemistry) and substrate oxidation rates and enzyme activities (biochemistry). The process of muscle fiber differentiation into mature patterns was evaluated by visual classification into 3 or 4 groups having different staining intensities for 3 enzyme-histochemical reactions, enabling 26 fiber types to be distinguished. These exhibited specific sizes and growth rates that varied among the muscles. One of the hindleg muscles (flexor digitorum brevis) remained much more immature than soleus and extensor digitorum longus. The histochemical and biochemical findings correlated well. The capacity for pyruvate and palmitate oxidation, and the activities of cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase, increased markedly between 9 and 37 days in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (except citrate synthase in the latter) but not in flexor digitorum brevis. Creatine kinase activity increased in all hindlimb muscles. Both the capacity and the activity of pyruvate oxidation (determined in homogenates and intact isolated muscles, respectively), were in accordance with the fiber type composition. In contrast to oxidation capacity, the activity of pyruvate oxidation decreased after birth until the mature stage, when a value of 18–42% of that of early postnatal muscles was recorded.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: Glycosaminoglycans ; Heparan sulfate ; Dermatan sulfate ; Cuprolinic blue ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The application of cationic probes for the ultrastructural detection of proteoglycans in basement membranes is reviewed. Proteoglycans are highly negatively charged macromolecules due to their glycosaminoglycan side chains. The interaction of cationic probes with proteoglycans is of an electrostatic nature. Methods are discussed to increase the specificity of probes for proteoglycans. The use of phthalocyanin-like dyes such as Cuprolinic blue, according to the critical electrolyte concentration method, results in a selective staining of proteoglycans. Enzymatic or chemical digestions, however, should be done to validate the proteoglycan nature of the dye-positive granules/filaments, and to establish the class of proteoglycan. The value of cationic probes in basement membrane research on development and pathology is discussed. The potential for deducting molecular information from the ultrastructural appearance of stained proteoglycans is indicated. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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