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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; Germany ; COHORT ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; SITES ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; AGE ; RATES ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; NETHERLANDS ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; time trends ; EUROPE ; COMORBIDITY ; cancer registries ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; RELATIVE SURVIVAL ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI INFECTION ; EMPIRICAL-EVALUATION ; cancer survival ; UP-TO-DATE ; EUROCARE-4
    Abstract: Period analysis has been shown to provide more up-to-date estimates of long-term cancer survival rates than traditional cohort-based analysis. Here, we provide detailed period estimates of 5- and 10-year relative survival by cancer site, country, sex and age for calendar years 2000-2002. In addition, pan-European estimates of 1-, 5- and 10-year relative survival are provided. Overall, survival estimates were mostly higher than previously available cohort estimates. For most cancer sites, survival in countries from Northern Europe, Central Europe and Southern Europe was substantially higher than in the United Kingdom and Ireland and in countries from Eastern Europe. Furthermore, relative survival was also better in female than in male patients and decreased with age for most cancer sites. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19091549
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Survival for ovarian cancer is the poorest of all gynaecological cancer sites. Our aim was to present the most up-to-date survival estimate for ovarian cancer by age and morphology and to answer the question whether survival for ovarian cancer improved in Europe during the 1990s. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This analysis was performed with data from the EUROCARE database. We considered all adult women diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 1995 and 2002 and life status followed up until the end of 2003. A total of 97 691 cases were contributed by 72 European cancer registries in 24 countries. We estimated the most up-to-date relative survival for a mean of 23 661 patients followed up in 2000-2003 using the period hybrid approach and described the relative survival trends from the beginning of 1990s. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Overall, the European age-standardised one-year, five-year and five-year conditional on surviving one-year relative survival were 67.2% (95% CI 66.6-67.8), 36.1% (95% CI 35.4-36.8) and 53.7% (95% CI 52.8-54.7), respectively. Five-year relative survival was 58.6% (95% CI 57.4-59.8), 37.1% (95% CI 36.1-38.1) and 20.5% (95% CI 19.1-21.9) in women aged 15-54, 55-74 and 75-99 years, respectively. The age-standardised five-year relative survival was 38.1% (95% CI 36.9-39.3) for serous tumours and 51.9% (95% CI 49.0-54.9) for mucinous cancers and the crude five-year relative survival was 85.6% (95% CI 81.2-90.0) for germ cell cancers. Overall, the age-standardised five-year relative survival increased from 32.4% (95% CI 31.7-33.2) in 1991-1993 to 36.3% (95% CI 35.5-37.0) in 2000-2003. There is a need to better understand the reasons for the wide variation in survival of ovarian cancer in Europe. Actions aiming to harmonise the protocols for therapy should contribute to narrowing the wide gap in survival and research on screening and early detection of ovarian cancer should be enforced.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22313338
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; CLINICAL-TRIAL ; LUNG ; PROSTATE ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; screening ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; MORTALITY ; SITE ; SITES ; PATIENT ; IMPACT ; tumour ; treatment ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; prevention ; LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCIES ; DIFFERENCE ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; colorectal cancer ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; RATES ; MELANOMA ; REGION ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; PRODUCT ; REGIONS ; SURVEILLANCE ; US ; RECRUITMENT ; STOMACH ; STOMACH-CANCER ; EUROPE ; MANAGEMENT ; GUIDELINES ; MALIGNANCY ; ONCOLOGY ; REGISTRY ; PROGRAM ; cancer registries ; END ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; RELATIVE SURVIVAL ; TESTICULAR CANCER ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; analysis ; methods ; PROFILES ; leukaemia ; cancer registry ; USA ; female ; CANCERS ; REGISTRIES ; EMPIRICAL-EVALUATION ; IMPROVEMENT ; colorectal ; cancer survival ; stomach cancer ; - ; REGIMEN ; THYROID-CANCER ; CALMAN-HINE REPORT
    Abstract: Background Traditional cancer-survival analyses provide data on cancer management at the beginning of a study period, and are often not relevant to current practice because they refer to survival of patients treated with older regimens that might no longer be used. Therefore, shortening the delay in providing survival estimates is desirable. Period analysis can estimate cancer survival by the use of recent data. We aimed to apply the period-analysis method to data that were collected by European cancer registries to estimate recent survival by country and cancer site, and to assess survival changes in Europe. We also compared our findings with data on cancer survival in the USA from the US SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) programme. Methods We analysed survival data for patients diagnosed with cancer in 2000-02, collected from 47 of the European cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE-4 study. 5-year period relative survival for patients diagnosed in 2000-02 was estimated as the product of interval-specific relative survival values of cohorts with different lengths of follow-up. 5-year survival profiles for patients diagnosed in 2000-02 were estimated for the European mean and for five European regions, and findings were compared with US SEER registry data for patients diagnosed in 2000-02. A 5-year survival profile for patients diagnosed in 1991-2002 and a 10-year survival profile for patients diagnosed in 1997-2002 were also estimated by the period method for all malignancies, by geographical area, and by cancer site. Findings For all cancers, age-adjusted 5-year period survival improved for patients diagnosed in 2000-02, especially for patients with colorectal, breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer, Hodgkin's s disease, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The European mean age-adjusted 5-year survival calculated by the period method for 2000-02 was high for testicular cancer (97.3% [95% CI 96.4-98.2]), melanoma (86.1% [84.3-88 .0]), thyroid cancer (83.2% [80.9-85 . 6]), Hodgkin' s disease (81.4% [78.9-84. 1]), female breast cancer (79.0% [78.1-80 . 0]), corpus uteri (78.0% [76.2-79.9]), and prostate cancer (77.5% [76.5-78.6]); and low for stomach cancer (24.9% [23.7-26.2]), chronic myeloid leukaemia (32.2% [29.0-3 5.7]), acute myeloid leukaemia. (14.8% [13.4-16.4]), and lung cancer (10 - 9% [10.5-11.4]). Survival for patients diagnosed in 2000-02 was generally highest for those in northem European countries and lowest for those in eastem European countries, although, patients in eastern European had the highest improvement in survival for major cancer sites during 1991-2002 (colorectal cancer from 30.3% [28.3-32 .5] to 44.7% [42.8-46 .7]; breast cancer from 60% [57.2-63.0] to 73.9% [71.7-76.2]; for prostate cancer from 39.5% [35.0-44.6] to 68.0% [64 - 2-72.1]). For all solid tumours, with the exception of stomach, testicular, and soft-tissue cancers, survival for patients diagnosed in 2000-02 was higher in the US SEER registries than for the European mean. For haematological malignancies, data from US SEER registries and the European mean were comparable in 2000-02, except for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Interpretation Cancer-service infrastructure, prevention and screening programmes, access to diagnostic and treatment facilities, tumour-site-specific protocols, multidisciplinary management, application of evidence-based clinical guidelines, and recruitment to clinical trials probably account for most of the differences that we noted in outcomes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17714993
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; BLOOD ; LUNG ; PROSTATE ; screening ; SUPPORT ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; larynx ; SITES ; TIME ; PATIENT ; REDUCTION ; colon ; SKIN ; BREAST ; LYMPHOMA ; CARE ; HEALTH ; HUMANS ; WOMEN ; MEN ; MELANOMA ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; time trends ; TRENDS ; EUROPE ; ADULT ; REGISTRY ; cancer registries ; RELATIVE SURVIVAL ; PROTOCOL ; colonoscopy ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; survival analysis ; leukaemia ; female ; Male ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; CANCERS ; EXTENT ; REGISTRIES ; Aged ; Middle Aged ; cancer survival ; NON-HODGKIN-LYMPHOMA ; Aged,80 and over ; therapeutic ; EUROCARE-4 ; Young Adult ; Europe/epidemiology ; Neoplasms/*mortality ; Adolescent ; Age Distribution ; Residence Characteristics ; Sex Distribution ; Mortality/trends
    Abstract: We analysed data from 49 cancer registries in 18 European countries over the period 1988-1999 to delineate time trends in cancer survival. Survival increased in Europe over the study period for all cancer sites that were considered. There were major survival increases in 5 year age-adjusted relative survival for prostate (from 58% to 79%), colon and rectum (from 48% to 54% men and women), and breast (from 74% to 83%). Improvements were also significant for stomach (from 22% to 24%), male larynx (from 62% to 64%), skin melanoma (from 78% to 83%), Hodgkin disease (from 77% to 83%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (from 49% to 56%), leukaemias (from 37% to 42%), and for all cancers combined (from 34% to 39% in men, and from 52% to 59% in women). Survival did not change significantly for female larynx, lung, cervix or ovary. The largest increases in survival typically occurred in countries with the lowest survival, and contributed to the overall reduction of survival disparities across Europe over the study period. Differences in the extent of PSA testing and mammographic screening, and increasing use of colonoscopy and faecal blood testing together with improving cancer care are probably the major underlying reasons for the improvements in survival for cancers of prostate, breast, colon and rectum. The marked survival improvements in countries with poor survival may indicate that these countries have made efforts to adopt the new diagnostic procedures and the standardised therapeutic protocols in use in more affluent countries.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19124239
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: propranolol ; oxprenolol ; partial agonist activity ; cyclic AMP ; plasma catecholamines ; heart rate ; blood pressure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a randomised within-subject double-blind study, 7 healthy male volunteers, aged 32 to 40 years, received at rest intravenous infusions of 2 mg propranolol (devoid of partial agonist activity), 2 mg oxprenolol (with partial agonist activity) and placebo. Cuff blood pressure did not vary after any of the 3 treatments. The heart rate did not change after placebo, but fell in the first 5 min both after propranolol and oxprenolol (p〈0.01); the rate was slightly lower after propranolol than oxprenolol (p〈0.05). The heart rate remained lower after both β-blockers than placebo from 5 to 60 min after the infusion (both p〈0.01), but the difference between the two β-blockers was no longer significant. Plasma cyclic AMP showed a peak rise at 2 and 3 min after oxprenolol, and remained unchanged at those times after propranolol and placebo. From the 5th to the 60th min after infusion, the cyclic AMP concentration was lower after both β-blockers than placebo, and with a slightly but not significantly higher level on oxprenolol than propranolol. Plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline were higher after the β-blockers compared to placebo. Oxprenolol evoked a smaller and non-significant rise in both catecholamines. That oxprenolol, unlike propranolol, causes a sudden rise in plasma cyclic AMP soon after an i.v. infusion may be due to its partial agonist activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: felodipine ; hypertension ; ambulatory blood pressure monitoring ; slow-release formulation ; side-effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary To assess the duration of the antihypertensive effect of the dihydropiridine calcium antagonist felodipine in conventional (C-F) and slow-release (ER-F) formulations, 12 patients with essential hypertension underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) at the end of a 2-week treatment period with C-F 5 mg b.d., ER-F 10 mg once daily (o.d.) and placebo. C-F, ER-F and placebo were given in a double-blind 3×3 latin square design 4 times replicated. There was no systematic change in the ABP profile over the three study periods regardless of the treatment. In comparison to placebo, the mean 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressures showed a significant and similar reduction after both formulations of F. Compared to placebo, C-F and ER-F induced a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure for 15 and 21 h, respectively, and of diastolic blood pressure for 16 and 21 h, respectively. Three patients complained of headache (mild in 2, moderately severe in 1), and two patients of nocturia, with either formulation of F.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1590-3478
    Keywords: Surveillance system ; register for cerebrovascular disease ; attack rate ; fatality rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Sommario Vengono riportati i dati riguardanti il sistema di sorveglianza per gli eventi cerebrovascolari relativi al periodo 1983–1985 nell'Area Latina nell'ambito del Progetto MONICA, su una popolazione target di circa 400.000 soggetti di età 25–74. Gli eventi cerebrovascolari raccolti in 3 anni sono stati 2245: i casi fatali sono stati 1016 (562 maschi e 454 femmine), i casi non fatali sono stati 1229 (742 maschi e 487 femmine). I tassi di attacco per 10.000 per anno sono stati 21.96 per i maschi e 15.20 per le femmine. Per definizione tutti i casi non fatali hanno ricevuto il trattamento in ospedale o in casa di cura; per i casi fatali il 68% ha ricevuto il trattamento in una struttura sanitaria (ospedale, clinica) il 32% è deceduto senza osservazione medica. La letalità a 28 giorni è risultata del 43% per i maschi e del 48% per le femmine.
    Notes: Abstract Data are presented on the cerebrovascular events collected by a surveillance system during 1983–1985 in the MONICA Project-Area Latina, on a target population of about 400,000 subjects aged 25–74. The cerebrovascular events observed in 3 years were 2245: the fatalities (within 28 days from the onset of symptoms) numbered 1016 (562 males and 454 females), and the non fatal cases 1229 (742 males and 482 females). The attack rates per 10,000 per year were 21.96 for males and 15.20 for females. By definition, all the non fatal cases received some kind of treatment in hospital or nursing home. Among the fatal cases 68% received a treatment in a hospital or nursing home, while 32% died without medical attention. The fatality rate within 28 days was 43% for males and 48% for females.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer registry ; Italy ; lung cancer ; survival
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract From the population covered by the Lombardy Cancer Registry (northern Italy), all 2,259 lung cancer patients diagnosed from 1976 to 1981 were followed through 30 November 1989. The length of follow-up ranged from eight to 13 years. A special investigation on long-term survivors showed that a negligible proportion (0.01 percent) of errors occur in determining life status when an active follow-up is adopted. Age, stage, and histotype were found to be statistically significant, independent, prognostic factors in multivariate analysis both by the Cox model and by a model considering the relative survival. Observed survival was 29 percent at one year after diagnosis, 13 percent at two years, eight percent at three years, five percent at five years and two percent at 10 years. Survival decreased with age, but the youngest patients of both sexes showed lower survival compared with immediately subsequent ages. Among morphologically confirmed tumors, epidermoid carcinomas and adenocarcinomas showed the highest survival (38 percent and 33 percent at one year, respectively); small cell carcinomas showed the poorest prognosis (one-year survival, 23 percent). Beyond the second year after diagnosis, differences between histotypes became slighter. Survival according to stage showed a decreasing pattern from limited to advanced tumors, one-year figures being 41 percent for localized tumors, 27 percent for regional metastasis, and three percent for distant metastasis. Relative survival in Varese was compared with that reported by other cancer registries in Western countries: the variability noted could be related to different modalities of registration and to different distribution of clinical and demographic factors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Italy ; occurrence ; stomach cancer ; survival ; time trends
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mortality data from official sources, and survival data from population-based cancer registries, are used for the estimation of incidence and prevalence of stomach cancer. Time trends of morbidity, survival, and mortality during the period 1970–90 are presented and analyzed. Incidence rates were decreasing during the considered period, but the rate of decrease was slowing down during the last decade. Almost stable rates, and even slightly increasing for women, were estimated for the youngest cohorts. Relative survival for stomach cancer was higher for women and for young ages; it was associated positively with period of diagnosis, and presented a significant South-North geographic gradient. Prevalence was estimated as decreasing during the period 1970–80, but increasing during the successive decade, due to both better survival and population aging. Projection of stomach cancer morbidity and mortality to the year 2000 showed that the disease should still be considered in Italy as a major public health problem.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; incidence ; prevalence ; survival ; epidemiologic methods
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Survival probability for female breast cancer patients was used to estimate incidence rates from breast cancer mortality data in Italy. The female breast cancer survival curve from the Lombardy Cancer Registry (LCR) was used to test the method on data from four local cancer registries, covering areas in different regions of Italy. In spite of the well known geographic variability of female breast cancer incidence and mortality, the results support the idea that survival probability does not change across the country and that the survival probability from the LCR is a good estimate of that in the country as a whole. Female breast cancer incidence and prevalence rates were then estimated for Italy, making use of a mathematical model specifically developed for chronic diseases. In 1985, crude incidence and prevalence rates of female breast cancer, for ages up to 74 years, were estimated as 71 and 701 per 100,000 women, respectively. Estimated incidence rates show a complex trend with age, increasing to a temporary pronounced peak at the age of 52. A marked cohort effect was found to increase significantly the risk of the disease from the 1886 to the 1930 birth cohorts by a factor of 2.9. After the 1930 cohort, risks have continued at a constant high level.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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