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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Key words Polymeric liquid crystals ; anisotropy ; fillers ; string phases ; negative normal stresses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The effect of fillers on the flow curves of polymeric liquid crystals is investigated. Suspensions of polystyrene particles in liquid crystalline solutions of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in water are used. By reducing the HPC concentration an isotropic solution can be prepared. It serves as a reference to isolate the effect of the isotropic/anisotropic structure of the suspending medium on the rheological behaviour. Suspensions in the isotropic solution behave as expected for filled viscoelastic matrices in general. In the anisotropic medium the shear rate rather than the shear stress seems to govern the changes in the relative viscosity. This behaviour is clearly different from isotropic viscoelastic media. The most dramatic effect however is that even small amounts of particles eliminate or drastically shift the region of negative normal stress differences. As far as the structure is concerned, microscopic observations show that particles align in anisotropic as well as in isotropic media. At rest or at relatively low shear stresses the liquid crystalline structure is, in the present case, hardly affected by the presence of the particles. If anything, it becomes more homogeneous.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Key words Liquid crystalline polymers ; Larson-Doi model ; Flow- induced texture ; Transient recoil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The mesoscopic models for the rheological properties of liquid crystalline polymers proposed by Larson and Doi in 1991 and Kawaguchi and Denn in 1999 are based on phenomenological expressions that describe the evolution of the defect density and the contribution of the “texture” to the stress. In the present work, we attempt to assess some of these assumptions by monitoring how the energy stored in the texture of liquid crystalline materials evolves during shear flows. For that purpose, strain recovery is measured as a function of the applied strain for flow reversal and intermittent flow. Solutions of poly-benzylglutamate in m-cresol, hydroxypropylcellulose in water and a nematic surfactant solution are used as model systems. Although the behaviour is described qualitatively by the model, discrepancies between the predictions and the experiments are observed, especially when the shear history includes rest periods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 68 (1997), S. 4090-4096 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The design of a device for rheological orthogonal superposition measurements on fluids is discussed. Superposing a small amplitude oscillatory motion on a steady or transient shear flow provides a technique to probe flow-induced microstructural changes in situ by means of mechanical spectroscopy. Oscillations perpendicular to the main shear flow possess intrinsic advantages over the parallel case. It is shown that the closed loop system of a force rebalanced transducer of an existing rheometer can be modified to drive an orthogonal oscillatory motion and to measure the material response. Nonhomogeneous flow, annular pumping or cavitation can occur and have to be avoided by means of a suitable flow cell. A double walled Couette cell, open at the bottom is suggested for that purpose. The device is evaluated with Newtonian fluids and with a viscoelastic polymer solution. The apparatus has two major advantages. First the forces associated with the main shear flow can be measured simultaneously with the orthogonal moduli. Second, the present design is implemented on an instrument already capable of performing parallel superposition measurements, hence the two superposition modes are available on a single instrument. The relative simplicity of the proposed modification could boost the use of orthogonal superposition measurements and facilitate the development of new applications, e.g., to probe the time evolution of the flow-induced anisotropy in complex systems. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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