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  • 1
    ISSN: 0305-0491
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Clofibrate ; hyperlipoproteinaemia ; glucose intolerance ; serum insulin ; plasma fibrinogen ; blood glucose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of clofibrate therapy were studied in fifty year old, weight-stable, free-living men not on specific dietary treatment. The patients had been selected because of hyperlipidaemia and/or glucose intolerance found at a health screening survey. The study lasted for four months and was double-blind and cross-over in design. The results showed no effect of clofibrate treatment on glucose tolerance, as measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test, neither in the entire group (t=0.90, 2p〉0.05, n=21) nor in a subgroup (t=−0.71, 2p〉0.05, n=10) with glucose intolerance on screening. Fasting blood glucose was significantly decreased (t=3.71, 2p〈0.01) in the subgroup (n=8) with fasting blood glucose greater than 100 mg/100 ml during the placebo period. There was, however, a significant (t=4.00, 2p〈0.001) reduction in fasting serum(S-)insulin concentration during clofibrate therapy. The reduction was correlated with relative body weight (r=0.59, 2p〈0.01). Elevated S-lipoproteins were decreased by clofibrate therapy, S-low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by 20 per cent and S-very low density lipoprotein triglyceride concentrations by 52 per cent. Significant falls in plasma fibrinogen concentration (t=4.57, 2p〈0.001) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (t=2.48, 2p〈0.025) also occured, which were not correlated to the other effects reported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Bisoprolol ; Lipoproteins ; Hypertension ; β-adrenoceptor antagonists
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of bisoprolol 2.5 and 5 mg per day on blood pressure, and lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were compared in 18 newly detected hypertensives in a double-blind, crossover study. All treatment results were related to the values at the end of a four-week placebo run-in period. Each of the two following treatment periods lasted for 3 months. The systolic and diastolic pressures in the supine position were reduced by 19.5/11.7 mm Hg and 14.6/10.4 mm Hg by 2.5 and 5 mg bisoprolol per day, respectively, with no significant difference in effect. Supine heart rate was reduced by 4.7 and 8.2 beats · min−1, respectively, (P=0.0517 for different effects). The cholesterol concentration in low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins was reduced during both regimens, by about 0.3 and 0.1 mmol·l−1, respectively, difference not significant. Triglyceride concentrations were not significantly affected during either regimen. We conclude that, in this study population, treatment with bisoprolol 2.5 mg per day was equally effective as 5.0 mg per day in reducing blood pressure. The effects on lipoprotein concentrations were small and included an unexpected reduction in LDL-cholesterol concentration. A low dose of a highly selective β-adrenoceptor blocker like bisoprolol appears to retain the blood pressure reducing capacity and has lost most of the unfavourable effects on lipoproteins characteristic of higher doses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Type I diabetes mellitus ; HDL cholesterol ; Apo A-I ; Apo C-II ; Apo C-III
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Serum lipoprotein lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations were determined in 27 diabetic children (5–18 years old) and 13 matched healthy controls. The serum cholesterol concentrations in the diabetics were slightly higher than in the controls (P〈0.05) due to a significantly higher level of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P〈0.01). Also the serum concentration of apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein constituent of the high density lipoprotein fraction, was higher in the diabetic children (P=0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to the serum triglyceride concentrations or the apolipoprotein C-II and C-III concentrations. Neither the lipoprotein lipid nor the apolipoprotein levels were significantly correlated with variables related to the degree of regulation of the diabetic disease. No obvious explantation, based on the present data, can be given for the increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in insulin-treated diabetics in comparison with the healthy children. It is possible, however, that the increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration may be caused by an increased level of insulin in the circulation of insulin-treated diabetic children.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Cholsterol esters ; fatty acid composition ; insulin sensitivity ; palmitic acid ; phospholipids ; skeletal muscle.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recent data indicate that peripheral insulin sensitivity may be influenced by dietary fat quality and skeletal muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition. During a health survey of 70-year-old men insulin sensitivity was measured by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique and the fatty acid composition of the serum cholesterol esters was determined (n = 215) by gas liquid chromatography. In a subsample the fatty acids of the skeletal muscle phospholipids and triglycerides were determined after fine needle biopsy from m. vastus lateralis (n = 39). The peripheral insulin sensitivity was significantly and negatively correlated to the proportion of palmitic (r = -0.31, p 〈 0.001), palmitoleic (r = − 0.25, p 〈 0.001) and di-homo-γ-linolenic (r = − 0.33, p 〈 0.001) acids and positively to the content of linoleic (r = 0.28, p 〈 0.001) acid in the serum cholesterol esters. There was an even stronger negative relationship to the proportion of palmitic acid in the skeletal muscle phospholipds (r = − 0.45, p 〈 0.004). The fatty acid composition was also significantly related to insulin sensitivity in a stepwise multiple regression analysis in the presence of other clinical variables, which were associated with insulin action in univariate analysis. Thus, more than 51 % of the variation of the insulin sensitivity was explained by an equation containing body mass index, serum triglyceride concentration and the content of palmitic acid in the skeletal muscle phospholipids. It is concluded that the fatty acid composition in serum and of the phospholipids of skeletal muscle may influence insulin action in elderly men. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 1044–1050]
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Cholsterol esters ; fatty acid composition ; insulin sensitivity ; palmitic acid ; phospholipids ; skeletal muscle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recent data indicate that peripheral insulin sensitivity may be influenced by dietary fat quality and skeletal muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition. During a health survey of 70-year-old men insulin sensitivity was measured by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique and the fatty acid composition of the serum cholesterol esters was determined (n=215) by gas liquid chromatography. In a subsample the fatty acids of the skeletal muscle phospholipids and triglycerides were determined after fine needle biopsy from m. vastus lateralis (n=39). The peripheral insulin sensitivity was significantly and negatively correlated to the proportion of palmitic (r=−0.31, p〈0.001), palmitoleic (r=−0.25, p〈0.001) and di-homo-γ-linolenic (r=−0.33, p〈0.001) acids and positively to the content of linoleic (r=0.28, p〈0.001) acid in the serum cholesterol esters. There was an even stronger negative relationship to the proportion of palmitic acid in the skeletal muscle phospholipds (r=−0.45, p〈0.004). The fatty acid composition was also significantly related to insulin sensitivity in a stepwise multiple regression analysis in the presence of other clinical variables, which were associated with insulin action in univariate analysis. Thus, more than 51% of the variation of the insulin sensitivity was explained by an equation containing body mass index, serum triglyceride concentration and the content of palmitic acid in the skeletal muscle phospholipids. It is concluded that the fatty acid composition in serum and of the phospholipids of skeletal muscle may influence insulin action in elderly men.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Psoriasis ; Fatty acids ; Plasma ; Adipose tissue
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The long-chained fatty acids, which are precursors of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, were examined in plasma lipid esters and adipose tissue obtained from 20 male psoriatic patients and 36 matched controls. The fatty-acid composition of the plasma lipid esters (cholesterol esters, triglycerides and phospholipids) and adipose tissue was assayed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. In comparison with healthy controls, the patients' plasma lipid esters contained significantly lower levels of linoleic acid (18:2 ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3 ω3), and higher levels of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3 ω6). In the adipose tissue of the patients, the amount of α-linolenic acid was significantly decreased, while that of arachidonic acid (20:4 ω6) was increased. The observed changes were more pronounced in patients with severe psoriasis than in those with a milder form of the disease. Our results suggest that psoriatic patients differ from healthy controls with regard to the distribution of several of the essential long-chained fatty acids involved in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The relevance of these findings to the development of psoriasis remains to be established.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Lipoproteins ; apolipoproteins ; triglycerides ; cholesterol ; Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were studied at diagnosis and 6,12 and 24 months later in 30 consecutive children aged 3–15 years with newly detected Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (December 1982–October 1984) and in 44 healthy control children. Serum triglycerides at diagnosis were significantly higher than after 6–24 months and also higher than in the control group (p〈0.001). At follow-up, triglycerides in the very low density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins were restored to normal, while high density lipoprotein triglycerides remained high. Serum cholesterol at onset of diabetes was significantly higher than in the control children (p〈0.01), mainly because of increased very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p〈0.001). Cholesterol in serum and in the serum lipoprotein fractions was similar to that in the control children at follow-up, except that high density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher in the diabetic children after 6 months. The concentrations of the serum apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and B were higher at onset of diabetes than in the control children (p〈0.001, p〈0.01, p〈0.05 respectively), with a significantly increased ratio of apolipoprotein A-I to A-II in the diabetic children (p〈0.001). The serum apolipoprotein concentrations were normalised during treatment. The ratio of apolipoprotein A-I to B did not differ from that in control children. On admission, there were strong positive correlations between HbA1c and the concentrations of the very low density lipoproteins and the low density and high density lipoprotein triglycerides. There were also significantly positive correlations (p〈0.01) between HbA1c and apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B respectively. After treatment these correlations disappeared, except for a positive correlation with very low density lipoprotein triglycerides at 2 years. In conclusion, at diagnosis, when the diabetic children were in an insulin-deficient state, all apolipoproteins and serum lipoprotein fractions, except cholesterol in high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins were increased. During the first two years of treatment the concentrations of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in serum are similar to those in healthy children.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Eight patients with psoriasis or Darier's disease were studied during 1–3 months of‘Tigason’ treatment (O.7–O.8 mg/kg body weight). The levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in whole serum and in different lipoprotein fractions were repeatedly determined. Before treatment all lipid values were within the normal range. During treatment the values changed gradually and five of the eight patients developed pathological VLDL triglyceride concentrations. A significant increase of VLDL cholesterol and a decrease in the HDL cholesterol was also noted. Until more information is available, prolonged treatment periods with‘Tigason’ should perhaps be avoided, at least in high risk patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Lipids ; fatty acids ; juvenile diabetes mellitus ; platelet aggregation ; atherosclerosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Platelet aggregation was studied in 14 diabetic children with no signs of angiopathy and in 14 healthy matched control children. The magnitude of the platelet shape change after ADP stimulation was decreased in diabetic patients while the maximal aggregation after ADP and low dose collagen was significantly higher than in healthy control children. In 28 diabetic children the platelet shape change after ADP stimulation was positively correlated with the serum concentration of apolipoprotein A-I and negatively correlated with serum triglyceride concentration. The ratio between the fatty acids 20∶3/20∶4 in cholesterol esters was strongly correlated with the relative incidence of irreversible aggregation (p〈 0.001) and with the magnitude of the maximal aggregation (p〈0.01) after ADP stimulation (3.3 μmol/l). The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction was negatively correlated to the maximal aggregation after collagen stimulation (10 mg/l). This study shows that platelet aggregation is increased early in the course of diabetes in childhood. It suggests that the abnormalities in platelet aggregation pattern in diabetic patients are related to several of the lipid factors associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
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