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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 133 (1996), S. 139-142 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; growth ; medium ; physiology ; thiamine ; vitamins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The use of a simple synthetic medium is essential for study on the growth and physiology ofCryptococcus neoformans. In the present study, a minimal synthetic liquid medium (MSM) was tested for the growth of 23C. neoformans strains. This medium contained a low concentration of glucose, ammonium sulphate and inorganic salts with a pH value of 4.5, but no amino acids or vitamins. The strains were starved for 4 days to eliminate nutrients which might have been carried over from their pre-culture medium. Then, they were inoculated in the MSM at an initial OD of 0.020 at 550 nm and incubated at 37 °C for 20 days. Cell growth was generally monitored daily by measuring the absorbance at 550 nm. The medium supported the growth of the strains tested and gave an average final OD of 0.500. The results obtained indicate thatC. neoformans may be autotrophic with respect to vitamins and in particular to thiamine. The MSM medium is easy to prepare and store. It is highly reproducible and useful for studies on the growth and physiology ofC. neoformans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; germ tube ; fructose ; metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of different fructose concentrations (5, 3, 1 and 0 g/l) was tested on Germ Tube (GT) production by Candida albicans strain AS3P, using a Minimal Synthetic Medium (MSM) without (NH4)2SO4. The results obtained showed good GT production in the presence of all the different fructose concentrations and in the absence of any nitrogen source. The greatest GT production was obtained with 3 g/l of fructose vs 1 g/l of glucose, after 4 hr of incubation. On the other hand fructose consumption was lower than that of glucose at all concentrations over the 4 hour period. The data obtained may suggest that fructose is metabolized in a different way from glucose for GT production by C. albicans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 95 (1986), S. 77-80 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: epidemiology ; hospital infections ; fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A microbiological study was carried out in the burn-care unit of the Centro Traumatologico Ortopedico of Turin (Italy) in order to detect the most important sources of fungal contamination in patients at high risk of infection. Identification of the fungi was carried out only for those of medical mycological interest, with the exclusion of the yeast isolates.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of different glucose concentrations was tested in a minimal synthetic medium onCandida albicans strain. After 18 hours of starvation, germ-tube (GT) production, amount of consumed glucose, oxygen and the pH of the medium were checked every hour from the beginning through the end of the experiment. Optimal GT production was obtained with 1 g/l of glucose. At this concentration the greatest glucose and oxygen consumption were also noted. No pH variations in the medium were observed in all of the glucose concentrations used. At 3 and 5 g/l glucose concentrations a lower GT production were obtained. The Crab-tree effect might interfere with GT production when glucose concentration is higher than 1 g/l. This data may support the hypothesis that GT production is strictly glucose dependent.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Stress mannoproteins ; salivary secretory IgA ; Candida albicans ; antifungals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have examined the influence of subinhibitory concentrations of several antifungals, the different glucose and ammonium sulphate concentrations in the culture medium as well as the strain variability on the expression in vitro of stress mannoproteins reactive with salivary sIgA in C. albicans and other Candida spp isolates. Irrespective of the conditions used, no reactivity with salivary sIgA was observed in yeast cells grown at 25 °C. However, when grown at 37 °C, all of the 10 C. albicans strains, but only 9 out 28 non-C.albicans isolates studied showed reactivity with salivary sIgA. Cells grown at 37 °C in medium containing maximum concentrations of glucose and ammonium sulphate expressed the antigens reactive with sIgA during longer periods of time than the cells grown in medium with minimal concentrations of the same compounds. The regulatory role showed by the concentration of glucose and ammonium sulphate on the antigenic expression was subordinated, nevertheless, to the most important factor, the temperature of incubation. Only isolates showing low susceptibility expressed the antigens reactive with sIgA under the influence of subinhibitory concentration of antifungals. However, induced resistance to one of the antifungals tested (5 fluorocytosine) allowed the antigenic expression at elevated subinhibitory concentrations even in previous susceptible strains. In conclusion, in addition to the temperature, factors such as characteristics of the strain, the concentration of glucose and ammonium sulphate in the culture medium and the resistance to antifungals played a role on the expression of C. albicans antigens reactive with sIgA, which could be of clinical relevance in the course of infection.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; phospolipase ; virulence ; AIDS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Phospholipases have only been detected in a few fungi and yeasts, in particular in Candida albicans. Secreted phospholipases are considered by some researchers to be a potential factor of virulence and pathogenicity in C. albicans. Twenty-three Cryptococcus neoformans strains were tested in order to observe phospholipase production. Twenty-two of the 23 strains tested were able to produce phospholipases, and the ratio diameter of the colony to total diameter of the colony plus zone of precipitation (Pz) ranged between 0.271 and 0.949. C. neoformans, just like C. albicans, can be divided on the basis of the Pz into different strains according to their virulence and pathogenicity. There also appeared to be a correlation between the phospholipase production and the size of the capsule in the strains isolated from AIDS patients. For this reason, further studies on C. neoformans phospholipase activity would be useful in evaluating the virulence of different strains.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The study here presented deals with the problem of the dermatophytoses in Piedmont, with regard to their etiologic and, more generally, their epidemiologic aspects. From 586 patients who presented themselves at the Dermatology Clinic of the University of Turin, for mycological examinations, between the period of March–November 1979, 100 positive cases were selected. The study was set under way with the filling in of special forms for the epidemiologic investigation and with the classification of some species of fungi which had been isolated beforehand, using the methods of Ajello, Rebell and Taplin (1, 12). From the data collected, it was ascertained that the principal etiologic agents isolated were, in order of frequency: Microsporum canis, Tricophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and T. mentagrophytes. The subjects that were affected most by these dermatophytes were the young (babies and schoolchildren) with the location of the infections being mostly in the scalp. As regards the period of manifestation, May–June and September–October were the periods with the highest incidence. It is noteworthy that the diffusion of the principal dermatophytes could be attributed to domestic animals such as cats and dogs.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Several isolates of Candida albicans were tested for production of chlamydoconidia and metabolic changes when grown on several different solid and liquid media. A liquid medium, consisting solely of sterilized skimmed milk and a solid medium containing processed cheese stimulated more rapid and greater production of chlamydoconidia than the corn meal agar and the other media tested.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: hospital infections ; fungi ; yeasts ; epidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fungal opportunistic infections are a danger for immunocompromised hosts, such as patients with malignancies, especially in a hospital environment. We studied a group of patients with solid tumors of the respiratory tract on admission and after twenty days of hospitalization. Colonization by moulds and/or yeasts was frequently found. Preventive measures should be applied to avoid colonization inside the hospital. The importance of overcrowding, sanitation and diet is pointed out.
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