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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; ALGORITHM ; ALGORITHMS ; COMMON ; NETWORK ; SYSTEM ; TOOL ; EXPOSURE ; COMPONENTS ; BIOMARKERS ; NO ; DESIGN ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; COMPONENT ; DATABASE ; DIETARY ; AD ; FUTURE ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; GUIDELINES ; CHEMISTRY ; review ; WEIGHT ; 24-HOUR DIET RECALL ; analysis ; LOSSES ; prospective ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; STANDARDIZATION ; UNIT ; E ; SET ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; 24-h dietary recall ; ANALYSIS SYSTEMS ; DATA-BASE ; ENDB ; FOOD COMPOSITION DATABASES ; food composition tables ; nutrient databases ; NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS
    Abstract: Objective: This paper describes the ad hoc methodological concepts and procedures developed to improve the comparability of Nutrient databases ( NDBs) across the 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC). This was required because there is currently no European reference NDB available. Design: A large network involving national compilers, nutritionists and experts on food chemistry and computer science was set up for the 'EPIC Nutrient DataBase' ( ENDB) project. A total of 550-1500 foods derived from about 37 000 standardized EPIC 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRS) were matched as closely as possible to foods available in the 10 national NDBs. The resulting national data sets ( NDS) were then successively documented, standardized and evaluated according to common guidelines and using a DataBase Management System specifically designed for this project. The nutrient values of foods unavailable or not readily available in NDSs were approximated by recipe calculation, weighted averaging or adjustment for weight changes and vitamin/mineral losses, using common algorithms. Results: The final ENDB contains about 550-1500 foods depending on the country and 26 common components. Each component value was documented and standardized for unit, mode of expression, definition and chemical method of analysis, as far as possible. Furthermore, the overall completeness of NDSs was improved (〉= 99%), particularly for beta-carotene and vitamin E. Conclusion: The ENDB constitutes a first real attempt to improve the comparability of NDBs across European countries. This methodological work will provide a useful tool for nutritional research as well as end-user recommendations to improve NDBs in the future
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17375121
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; CLASSIFICATION ; POPULATION ; RISK ; BREAST-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; NETHERLANDS ; ALCOHOL ; EPIC ; nutrition ; FOOD ; nutrient intake ; BETA-CAROTENE ; NUTRIENTS ; Mediterranean diet ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; EPIC CALIBRATION ; RECALL ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; dietary patterns ; VITAMIN-C ; RECALLS ; energy intake ; 24-h dietary recall ; ENDB ; WEIGHT-GAIN ; PROCESSED FOODS ; VEGETABLE-OIL ; EPIC-soft ; nutrient intakes ; industrial foods ; MAJOR DIETARY PATTERNS ; nutrient patterns ; PALEOLITHIC NUTRITION ; standardisation
    Abstract: Objectives: To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35-74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g/day) were computed according to their degree of food processing (that is, highly, moderately and non-processed foods) using a specifically designed classification system. The contribution (%) of highly processed foods to the centre mean intakes of diet and 26 nutrients (including energy) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database (ENDB). The effect of different possible confounders was also investigated. Results: Highly processed foods were an important source of the nutrients considered, contributing between 61% (Spain) and 78-79% (the Netherlands and Germany) of mean energy intakes. Only two nutrients, beta-carotene (34-46%) and vitamin C (28-36%), had a contribution from highly processed foods below 50% in Nordic countries, in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, whereas for the other nutrients, the contribution varied from 50 to 91% (excluding alcohol). In southern countries (Greece, Spain, Italy and France), the overall contribution of highly processed foods to nutrient intakes was lower and consisted largely of staple or basic foods (for example, bread, pasta/rice, milk, vegetable oils), whereas highly processed foods such as crisp bread, breakfast cereals, margarine and other commercial foods contributed more in Nordic and central European centres. Conclusions: Highly industrially processed foods dominate diets and nutrient patterns in Nordic and central European countries. The greater variations observed within southern countries may reflect both a larger contribution of non/moderately processed staple foods along with a move from traditional to more industrialized dietary patterns.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888275
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