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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume La distribution de protéines du jaune d'œuf sous trois présentations différentes, d'hémoglobine bovine liquide, d'huile de soja, de miel et enfin d'eau a été étudiée au laboratoire dans des colonies de la «fourmi de feu» (Solenopsis invicta Buren). L'albumine et l'hémoglobine ont été marquées avec de l'iode radio-actif (125I) à haut niveau d'activité spécifique (10–15 μCi/μg) puis ajoutées à la nourriture protéique. L'iode radio-actif a été ajouté aux autres aliments comme indicateur libre. Chaque aliment a été offert de manière continue pendant une période de 48 heures alors que des échantillons étaient analysés au bout de 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 et 48 heures. Dans le cas du mélange albumine marquée/jaune d'œuf en poudre, les larves retiennent 80% de la nourriture et les ouvrières 20%. Dans le cas de protéines liquides, la proportion est de 45–55% pour les larves et 55–45% pour les ouvrières. Le miel et l'huile de soja sont conservés 12–24 heures par les ouvrières avant d'atteindre les larves. Dans le cas du miel, les larves retiennent en tout 40% et les ouvrières 60% alors qu'avec l'huile de soja les proportions sont de 30% pour les larves et 70% pour les ouvrières. De plus la distribution des aliments ainsi que leur consommation moyenne (exprimée en microgrammes ou microlitres) ont été déterminées.
    Notes: Summary The distribution of three forms of egg yolk protein, liquid bovine hemoglobin, soybean oil, honey, and water was studied in laboratory colonies of the imported fire antSolenopsis invicta Buren. Albumin and hemoglobin were radiolabelled with125Iodine to a high specific activity (10–15 μCi/μg) and added to protein foods.125I was mixed with the other foods as a free label. Each food was presented continuously over a 48 hour period and samples were taken at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. The ration of distribution of125I-albumin in powdered egg yolk was 80% in the larvae and 20% in the workers. For proteins in liquid form it remained at 45–55% in the larvae and 55–45% in the workers. The honey and soybean oil were retained by the workers for 12–24 hours before reaching the larvae. The overall ratio of distribution was 40% in the larvae and 60% in the workers with honey and 30% in the larvae and 70% in the workers with soybean oil. The distribution of food and average cumulative consumption in micrograms or microliters were determined.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die importierte Fenerameise hat einen besonders wirksamen Mechanismus Fremdpartikelchen die in der Nahrung anwesend sind zu filtrieren. Latex Partikelchen von 0.88 μm Durchmesser wurden im infrabukalen Beutel filtriert und eingeengt. Die kompakte Masse wurde nachher als Kügelchen ausgestossen. Die von den Larven verschluckten Latex Kügelchen hatten einen Durchmesser, der eine Länge von 45.8 μm erreichen Konnte und dem Durchmesser der Speiseröhre der Larven entsprach. Die wirksame Filtrierung der Partikelchen bietet wenig Hoffnung auf Erfolg das Durchlassen der Kontrollierten Insektenvertilgungsmittel zu gestatten, wenn sie in harter Form verabreicht werden müssen.
    Notes: Summary The imported fire ant,Solenopsis invicta, has a highly efficient mechanism for filtering particles from food material. Latex microspheres as small as 0.88 μm were filtered and concentrated in the infrabuccal pocket. The compacted mass was then ejected as a pellet. The maximum size latex spheres swallowed by larvæ were 45.8 μm, which approximately corresponds to the diameter of the larval esophagus. The efficient filtration of particles offers little hope for the success of controlled release insecticide formulations that require ingestion of solid particles.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume Nous décrivons dans cet article l'ultrastructure et la fonction de l'intestin postérieur chez la “fourmi de feu”Solenopsis invicta Buren. La base de l'intestin postérieur est fermée et insérée (par le “dôme”) dans la paroi postérieure de l'intestin moyen; elle est composée de cellules basales provenant à la fois des quatres tubes malpighiens et de l'intestin postérieur (ileo-colon). L'ileo-colon débouche, grâce à une valvule rectale, dans le rectum, et y déverse de l'acide urique (excrétion blanchâtre) sécrété par les tubes malipighiens. L'épithélium rectal à paroi mince possède trois papilles rectales composées de grosses cellules cuboïdes. Les matériaux excrétés par la larve consistent en deux éléments: un précipité blanc composé d'acide urique et un liquide clair composé d'eau et de sels. Les observations ultrastructurales suggèrent que les papilles rectales et les tubes malipighiens sécrètent le liquide clair à partir de l'hémolymphe; les résultats d'expériences menées sur les excréments indiquent par ailleurs que les excrétions larvaires ne sont pas ingérées par les autres membres de la colonie, à l'exception des adultes qui mangent du liquide clair en cas de déficit en eau. Les adultes transportent les matériaux excrétés hors du nid.
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure and excretions of the hindgut of larvæ of the imported fire ant,Solenopsis invicta Buren, is described. The anterior or base of the hindgut is closed and rooted (via the “dome”) in the posterior wall of the midgut, and is composed of basal cells of both the malpighian tubules and the small intestine (ileo-colon). The ileo-colon opens via a rectal valve into the rectum and transfers uric acid (white excretion) secreted by the malpighian tubules, into the rectum. The thin walled rectal epithelium has three rectal pads composed of large, cuboidal cells. The excretory product of larvæ consists of 2 components, a white precipitate composed of uric acid and a clear liquid consisting of water and salts. Ultrastructural and observational studies suggest that the rectal pads and malpighian tubules secrete the clear fluid from the hemolymph. Results of experiments with the waste products indicate that larval excretions are not ingested by other members of the colony except adults which under water stress do consume some of the clear liquid. The adults do participate in the removal of the excretory products from the brood chamber.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Z,Z,Z-Allofarnesene (2Z, 4Z, 6Z)-2,6,10-trimethyl-2, 4, 6, 10-dodecatetraene) was identified as the trail pheromone of the red imported fire ant by comparing chromatographic and spectral properties of the pheromone obtained from ant Dufour's glands with those of synthetic compounds.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 235 (1972), S. 169-170 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] To avoid competition females often select hosts which have not been parasitized previously. They do this by detecting a chemical on the host2,3 or the substratum4 or by detecting gross physical5 or chemical changes6 in the host which are presumably detected after the ovipositor has been inserted. ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Bracon ; Ephestia ; Lepidoptera ; Pyralidae ; Hymenoptera ; Braconidae ; kairomone ; host selection ; parasitoid ; foraging ; ketones ; 2-acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract 2-Acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones produced in the mandibular glands ofEphestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) fifth instars acted as arrestment and host-trail following kairomones for the parasitoid,Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The behavioral response of the parasitoids to the kairomone varied with kairomone concentration and distribution. However, only small differences in activity were noted for the different mandibular gland components.B. hebetor females that encountered filter paper patches impregnated with the kairomone exhibited antennation and probing behavior. Females followed trails formed with 2-[(Z,E)12,14-hexadecadienoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione in the same manner exhibited with host-made trails. At concentrations of 1.0 μg/mm and above, trail following was interrupted by frequent probing.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Xylocopa micans ; Hymenoptera ; Anthophoridae ; mesosomal glands ; mandibular glands ; hydrocarbons ; fatty acid esters ; territoriality ; mating system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Males ofXylocopa micans employ two mating systems in south-central Texas. They defend territories around flowering wisteria and redbud in March and April, and they maintain nonresource-based or landmark territories in July and August. Mandibular and mesosomal gland contents (analyzed by GC-MS) are different in bees employing the two mating systems. Mandibular glands contain only straight-chain hydrocarbons in bees defending floral resources, but include ethyl oleate in bees defending landmark territories. Mesosomal glands contain saturated, mono- and diunsaturated straight-chain hydrocarbons and methyl and ethyl esters of long-chain fatty acids. The major ethyl ester, ethyl oleate, comprises only 1.1% of mesosomal gland contents in bees defending floral resources but comprises 39.7% of gland content of bees defending landmark territories. These findings are discussed relative to the proposed sex pheromone function ofXylocopa gland secretions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Trissolcus basalis ; Nezara viridula ; Hymenoptera ; Scelionidae ; Heteroptera ; Pentatomidae ; kairomone ; parasitoid ; identification ; defensive glands ; host location ; (E)-2-decenal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A short-chain α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, (E)-2-decenal, present in the defensive metathoracic gland ofNezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), stimulates a behavioral response in the egg parasitoidTrissolcus basalis (Woll.) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Preliminary studies showed thatT. basalis are attracted to an area containing adultN. viridula, but we also found that femaleT. basalis would examine and probe glass beads coated with an acetone extract of the metathoracic gland from males or females. Using this bioassay, the kairomone was isolated by bioassay directed by preparative gas chromatography and identified by NMR and mass spectrometry as (E)-2-decenal. The biological activity of the identified aldehyde was compared with analogs to determine specificity. An unstable Z isomer was found to be more active but not present in detectable or behaviorly relevant levels in the host, based on the bell-shaped dose-response curve of the two isomers. An investigation was also designed to determine if theE isomer was also responsible for the egg recognition kairomone activity previously reported. However, no 2-decenal isomers were detected in host egg extracts and the chemical characteristics of the 2-decenal isomers differ from the unidentified egg recognition kairomone. The role of the (E)-2-decenal in attracting femaleT. basalts toN. viridula was demonstrated in a Y-tube olfactometer; this alk-2-enal appears to act as a long-range kairomone orientingT. basalis toNezara populations.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Dendrocerus carpenteri ; Hymenoptera ; Megaspilidae ; hyperparasitoid ; primary parasitoid ; marking pheromone ; host discrimination ; self-recognition ; superparasitism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The megaspilidDendrocerus carpenteri (Curtis) is a solitary ectohyperparasitoid of aphid primary parasitoids. It avoids superparasitism, but the avoidance rate depends on the amount of time elapsed after the first oviposition. In addition, females discriminate in a time-dependent manner between hosts parasitized by themselves and hosts parasitized by conspecifics. They recognize parasitized hosts by means of two externally perceivable chemical markers that are deposited on the mummy shell. One of the markers is highly active, short-lived, not passable through gas chromatography (GC), and freezing sensitive; the other is moderately active, persistent, GC-passable and freezing tolerant. Using two markers is believed to be advantageous for the hyperparasitoid female, as their ratio provides information on mark age and on the producer of the mark (the female herself or a conspecific female).
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Centris adani ; mandibular gland ; geraniol ; nerol ; neral ; geranyl acetate ; ethyl laurate ; territoriality ; pheromone ; solitary bee
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Males of the solitary Central American beeCentris adani Cockerell possess enlarged mandibular glands filled with a fragrant fluid that was shown by gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis to consist of nerol, geraniol, neral, ethyl laurate, and geranyl acetate. Male bees set up territories by marking a semicircular array of grass stems with these compounds. Grass stems marked by the bees showed the presence of the same chemicals.
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