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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 4 (1969), S. 269-273 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bone-Biopsy ; Histology ; Instruments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'intérêt de plus en plus grand manifesté pour les troubles du métabolisme du squelette nécessite en clinique la mise au point de méthodes adéquates pour prélever du matériel osseux. A l'hôpital universitaire d'Utrecht, on se sert actuellement d'un trépan et d'une scie de base. Une description du prélevement, des instruments et de la méthode pour obtenir des coupes nondécalcifiées est présentée.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Das zunehmende Interesse an Problemen des Knochenmetabolismus hatte zur Folge, daß geeignete Methoden zur Gewinnung von Knochenbiopsien benötigt wurden. An der Universitätsklinik Utrecht werden jetzt ein Trepan und eine Basensäge benützt. Das Verfahren, die benötigten Instrumente, sowie die Arbeitsweise zur Herstellung von unentkalkten Schliffen werden beschrieben.
    Notes: Abstract The increasing interest in disorders of skeletal metabolism has urged the clinical need for adequate methods to obtain bone material. At the Utrecht University Hospital, a trephine and a base saw are now in use.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Serum ; Calcium ; Phosphate ; Alkaline phosphatase ; Kidney
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In 30 patients with chronic renal insufficiency (16 non-dialysed and 14 on dialysis) serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were determined and, in a crest biopsy specimen, morphometric determinations of bone qualities were calculated. A positive correlation was established between serum alkaline phosphatase, the osteoblast surface and the active resorption surface in both dialysed and non-dialysed patients. A positive correlation was also established between the osteoblast surface and the active resorption. In the non-dialysed patients a negative correlation was established between serum calcium and the osteoid surface.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Osteodystrophy ; Renal ; Histology ; Analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Chez 30 patients, présentant une insuffisance rénale, des biopsies de la crête iliaque sont débitées en coupes non décalcifiées pour réaliser une évaluation morphométrique. Le volume de l'os est normal. On note une augmentation du tissue ostéoide et de la résorption osseuse, ainsi qu'une quantité anormale de tissue fibreux. A l'aide de calcul de corrélation et d'analyse de facteurs, quatre facteurs sont choisis. Ils expriment l'influence de l'hormone parathyroidienne sur le tissue osseux, le degré de minéralisation et le rapport entre le volume osseux et la surface osseuse, le rapport entre tissu osseux et espace mesuré, et la résorption osseuse non active.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Bei 30 Patienten mit Niereninsuffizienz wurde aus dem Beckenkamm eine Biopsie entnommen und zu Knochenschliffen für morphometrische Messungen verarbeitet. Das Knochenvolumen was normal. Es fand sich ein vergrößerter Anteil an Osteoidgewebe, eine verstärkte Knochenresorption und eine abnormale Menge an fibrösem Gewebe. Mittels Korrelationsberechnungen und Faktoranalysen wurden 4 Faktoren ermittelt, welche folgende Eigenschaften ausdrückten: erstens den Einfluß des Parathormones auf das Knochengewebe, zweitens den Verkalkungsgrad und das Verhältnis zwischen Knochenvolumen und Knochenoberfl;ache, drittens das Verhältnis zwischen Knochengewebe und Zwischenraum und viertens die inaktive Knochenresorption.
    Notes: Abstract In 30 patients with renal insufficiency, a biopsy specimen was taken from the iliac crest and processed to obtain non-decalcified sections for morphometric evaluation. The bone volume was normal. There was an increased amount of osteoid tissue, increased bone resorption and an abnormal amount of fibrous tissue. With the aid of correlation calculations and factor analysis, four factors were extracted which expressed the influence of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue, the degree of mineralization and the relation between bone volume and bone surface, the relation between bone tissue and measured space, and non-active bone resorption.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Prostatic acid phosphatase ; Lysosomes ; Prostatic antigen ; Immunoelectron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructural localization of secretory prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in human benign prostate tissue was accomplished using the immunogold technique on ultrathin Lowicryl sections. Polyclonal antibodies directed against secretory PAP (MW 50 kD) and the lysosomal enzymes α-glucosidase and β-galactosidase as well as an antiserum dircted against prostatic antigen (PA) were used. PAP was found in secretory vacuoles of columnar secretory epithelial cells. In addition, double labeling experiments revealed that secretory PAP was also localized in electrondense organelles of columnar epithelial cells containing α-glucosidase and β-galactosidase. PA was exclusively found in secretory vacuoles of columnar secretory epithelial cells. The results demonstrate the presence of secretory PAP within functional lysosomes and secretory vacuoles of the prostatic columnar epithelial cells and the absence of such PAP-containing lysosomes in the basal cells of the prostatic acini.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Bone Scintigraphy ; Uptake ratio ; Osteoorosis ; Fluoride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The reproducibility and diagnostic value of local bone to soft tissue uptake ratio of99mTc(Sn)-MDP as a bone tracer was examined in a prospective study in 35 patients who were under investigation and/or treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The ratio of tracer uptake in the second lumbar vertebra (L2) and both femoral shafts was calculated from the number of counts in suitable regions of interest. Results obtained with settings and calculations in the routine practice were compared to the results obtained by revision of all raw data in one run by one person. The results were compared to the serum alkaline phosphatase activity (AP) and to local bone mineral mass as determined by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). In 15 patients serial measurements during fluoride therapy were also compared to serum osteocalcin values and to bone histomorphomatric data. The precision error of the calculation of uptake ratios from raw counts (including selection of region of interest) was 13.9% for the femoral shaft and 14.7% for L2. The mean difference between left and right femoral shaft in individuals was not significant and its variance was smallP 〉 0.1). There was a weak but significant linear correlation between local uptake ratio in the spine and AP in the total material (r=0.328P 〈 0.01). However, changes in local uptake ratio during therapy with fluoride in 15 patients were too small to be of any value and did not correlate with changes in alkaline phosphatase or osteocalcin or trabecular surface covered with osteoblasts. We conclude therefore that local uptake ratio of bone seeking isotopes has no value in assessing general metabolic bone activity in osteoportic patients, for diagnostic purposes or in the follow up of their response to therapy, except for the detection of local untoward reactions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Controversy still exists about the effect of 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BKC). a preservative in many nasal sprays, on human nasal epithelium in vivo. Objective To determine the safety of BKC by assessing its effect on the function and morphology of cilia of human nasal epithelium.Methods A single-centre, double-blind nasal biopsy study in 22 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, receiving fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray (FPANS) containing BKC. BKC plus placebo or placebo alone for 6 weeks. Before, at two weekly intervals during treatment and 2 weeks after treatment ceased an indigocarmine saccharine transport time (ICST) was performed. Results ICST results did not significantly vary between the groups. There was no statistical relationship between the number of ciliated cells present and the treatment the patients received. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy examination showed no effects of BKC.Conclusion Despite reports of its ciliostatic effects in vitro. BKC did not have such an effect when it was applied for 6 weeks (with/without fluticasone propionale) to the nasal mucosa of perennial allergic rhinitis patients in vivo.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Synopsis The activity and ultrastructural localization of alkaline phosphatase and esterase has been studied in normal rat intestine and after the increased crypt cell proliferation that occurs during recovery after 400 rad X-irradiation. Alkaline phosphatase activity is not present in crypt cells of normal intestine, but becomes apparent after the cell has migrated on to the villus. The enzyme is localized in the microvilli, along the lateral cell membranes and in dense bodies. Its activity increases 10 to 15-fold from the base to the tip of the villus. Morphometric analysis of the cell structureswhere this enzyme is localized reveals no marked changes in their relative proportions during crypt cell development. The expansion of the proliferative cell compartment along the whole length of the crypt which occurs during recovery after irradiation (72 hr after 400 rad X-irradiation) results in a marked reduction of alkaline phosphatase activity in the lower 10–15 cell positions at the base of the villus. During subsequent migration of these cells, the activity increases with cell age but normal values are not attained. From a morphometric analysis it was found that the ultrastructural development is similar to that in controls. These results suggest that during cell maturation, normal values for alkaline phosphatase activity are only attained after a 10–12 hr period of maturation in a non-proliferative state and only after the cell has migrated on to the functional villus compartment. In normal intestine, esterase activity shows a 3-fold increase from the bottom to the tip of the crypt and a 3 to 4-fold increase during migration up to the middle of the villus. Enzyme activity is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, the dense bodies and the perinuclear space. Morphometric analyses reveal a 2 to 3-fold increase in the absolute size of these subcellular compartments during crypt cell differentiation and a 2-fold increase at the crypt-villus junction. The relative sizes increase 1.5-fold during crypt cell differentiation and at the time of transition of the cells on to the villus. Increased crypt cell proliferation after irradiation leads to a marked decrease in esterase activity both in crypts and villi. Morphometric analyses of electron micrographs indicate that these changes in activity are not related to any changes in the subcellular structures in which the enzyme is localized. It appears that the normal development of esterase activity depends both on the functional state of the cell and its localization in the crypt or villus.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Rat small intestine ; Differentiation ; Ultrastructure ; Morphometry ; X-irradation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructural development of the principal cells in rat small intestine was studied by morphometric analyses in relation to the exact cell position along crypt and villus. From the bottom to the tip of the crypt, a gradual increase occurred in absolute size of the total cell, the cytoplasm, the terminal web and of nearly all cell organelles. Also, the relative size of the cytoplasm, mitochondria, microvilli and endoplasmic reticulum increased during crypt cell differentiation. No sudden changes in ultrastructure were observed in the so-called “critical decision zone”, normally located halfway up the crypt where the proliferative activity ceases. At the crypt-villous junction a 1.4–3 fold increase in cell size, cytoplasm, terminal web and of most organelles was noted. Expansion of the proliferative cell compartment over the total length of the crypt as occurs during recovery after a low X-irradiation dose (72 h after 400 R) does not affect the normal development of cellular ultrastructure. These findings are discussed in relation to biochemical and cell kinetic data.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 72 (1987), S. 21-27 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Typhaeus typhoeus ; Dung beetle ; Foraging efficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This paper deals with the functional aspects of the exploitation of dung by the dung beetle Typhaeus typhoeus. In horizontal brood chambers of a nest in the soil these beetles make “dung sausages” chiefly from rabbit droppings, as a food source for the larvae. Their foraging behaviour was shown to be positively correlated with the occurrence of rainy periods. The beetles foraged more efficiently on clustered dung pellets than on dispersed ones. Body sizes of beetles were positively correlated with the lengths of the dung sausages from which they emerged. In laboratory experiments the lengths of the dung sausages made by a pair of beetles did not significantly differ within a wide range of frequencies of supply of various amounts of rabbit dung pellets, despite the longer time spent per dung sausage when less dung was supplied per unit of time. It is suggested that dung provisioning does not stop before the dung sausages have reached lengths (approximately 8.5–9.5 cm) anticipated by the lengths of the brood chambers. However, there appeared to be a critically low value between 1–2 and 4–5 dung pellets supplied per day, below which the finished dung sausages were significantly shorter (approximately 3.5 cm). When, at the places of settlement, dung was scarce near the nest entrances, the number of nest excavated by the beetles and, thus, the beetles' physical effect on the soil, was shown to be higher than when dung was plentiful near the nest. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of the foraging behaviour by the beetles are discussed.
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