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  • 1
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary: Most human nephritis is caused by the deposition and/or formation of immune complexes in the glomerular region. Recently, it has been demonstrated that mesangial cells (MC) possess Fc receptors for IgG and IgA. In this work we demonstrate that catabolism of immune complexes occurs via Fc receptors. Mesangial cell incubation with IgA or IgG complexes induced cell proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis, two key aspects of progressive renal diseases. These effects are in part due to the production of cytokines IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), as specific antibodies decreased thymidine incorporation and fibronectin (FN) production. Fc receptor stimulation induced several intracellular signals involving phospholipase Cγ activation, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation, and Ca2+ mobilization. Furthermore, we observed activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, and increase in gene expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), proinflammatory cytokine participating in the recruitment of mononuclear cells, a phenomenon related to the onset and progression of renal injury. These responses depend on the Fc region of immunoglobulins because Fc fragments inhibited these effects. To observe whether this could be the case in vivo, rats with immune complex nephritis were treated with IgG Fc fragments. The administration of fragments significantly decreased proteinuria and morphological lesions. Our results show that MC activation through Fc receptors induces several intracellular responses, such as cell proliferation, synthesis of proinflammatory and profibrogenic cytokines, and accumulation of matrix proteins. • Modulation of immune complex—MC interaction by in vivo Fc fragments administration could represent a new approach in the glomerulonephritis treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Prediabetic ; standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) ; intravenous tolbutamide test (ITT) ; rapid intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) ; blood sugar ; immunoreactive insulin (IRI) ; non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) ; blunted insulin release ; early insulin response phase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Vingt-deux sujets non-obèses, génétiquement prédiabétiques (issus de deux parents diabétiques) ont été comparés à 34 sujets normaux de même âge et de même poids, en ce qui concerne leur réponse à trois stimuli standardisés: test de tolérance au glucose oral (avec 100 g de glucose), test de tolérance au tolbutamide intraveineux (1 g) et rapide infusion intraveineuse de glucose (0.33 g/kg de poids corporel). La glycémie, l'insuline immunoréactive et les acides gras non-estérifLés (NEFA) ont été mesurés dans les deux groupes à l'état de jeûne et à différents intervalles de temps au cours de chacun des trois tests.-Les résultats n'ont montré de différence significative ni dans la tolérance aux hydrates de carbone, ni dans le comportement des taux de NEFA entre les sujets normaux et les prédiabétiques, à aucun moment au cours des tests choisis. Les taux à jeun d'insuline plasmatique immunoréactive étaient également étroitement comparables dans les deux groupes; ni la charge orale de glucose, ni l'injection intraveineuse de tolbutamide ne provoquait une libération d'insuline significativement différente chez les sujets normaux et les prédiabétiques. Cependant, la rapide infusion intraveineuse de glucose provoquait une sécrétion d'insuline nettement diminuée dans le groupe prédiabétique qui était plutôt limitée à la phase de réponse très précoce.-Nos résultats confirment fortement l'idée qu'une capacité diminuée à sécréter de l'insuline sous l'influence du stimulus spécifique constitué par la charge brutale de glucose intraveineux est un trait plutôt caractéristique de la cellule bêta pancréatique chez ces sujets qui sont fortement prédisposés au diabète sucré.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die Reaktion von 22 normalgewichtigen genetischen Prädiabetikern, deren beide Elternteile Diabetiker waren, wurde mit der von 34 stoffwechselgesunden Freiwilligen entsprechenden Alters und Gewichtes verglichen. Als standardisierte Stimulationsmethoden dienten: der orale Glucosetoleranztest (100 g Glucose), der i.v. Tolbutamid-Toleranztest (1 g) und die schnelle i.v. Injektion von 0.33 g Glucose/kg Körpergewicht. Die Spiegel des Blutzuckers, des immunreaktiven Insulins und der unveresterten Fettsäuren (NEFA) wurden bei beiden Gruppen im Nüchternzustand und zu verschiedenen Zeiten während der 3 Tests bestimmt.-Die Resultate zeigten keine signifikanten Unterschiede in bezug auf die Kohlenhydrat-Toleranz und das Verhalten der NEFA zu irgend einem Zeitpunkt der benutzten Tests bei Normalpersonen und Prädiabetikern. Bei enger Übereinstimmung der Nüchternspiegel des plasma-immunreaktiven Insulins fanden sich auch keine signifikanten Unterschiede in der Ausschüttung nach oraler Glucosegabe oder i.v. Tolbutamidinjektion. Dagegen ergab sich nach schneller i.v. Glucoseinjektion eine deutlich verringerte Insulinfreisetzung bei der Gruppe der Prädiabetiker, die sich jedoch auf die Frühphase beschränkte. — Unsere Resultate sprechen durchaus dafür, daß eine verringerte Kapazität zur Ihsulinausschüttung nach dem spezifischen Reiz der i.v. Glucosebelastung ein Charakteristikum der Pankreas-β-Zelle der Menschen darstellt, die zum Diabetes mellitus prädisponiert sind.
    Notes: Summary Twenty-two non-obese genetic prediabetics (offspring with both parents diabetic) were compared with 34 normal volunteers, closely matched by age and weight, in their response to three standardized stimuli: oral glucose tolerance test (with 100 g of glucose), intravenous tolbutamide tolerance test (1 g) and rapid intravenous glucose infusion (0.33 g/kg body weight). Blood sugar, immunoreactive insulin and non-esterified fatty acids (N.E.F.A.) were estimated in both groups in the fasting state and at different time intervals during each of the three tests. — Results showed no significant differences (either in carbohydrate tolerance or in the behaviour of the N.E.F.A. levels) between normals and prediabetics at any time in the course of the selected tests. Plasma immunoreactive insulin fasting levels were also closely comparable in both groups, no significantly different insulin release in normals and prediabetics being elicited either by the oral glucose load or by the intravenous tolbutamide injection. However, the rapid intravenous glucose infusion brings about a markedly diminished insulin secretion in the prediabetic group limited to the very early response phase. — Our results strongly support the idea that an impaired ability to secrete insulin under the specific stimulus of the intravenous glucose is a distinguishing feature of the pancreatic beta cell in those humans pre-disposed to diabetes mellitus.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In a first approach, Ole e 8, a novel Ca2+-binding protein from olive pollen, was cloned and produced in Escherichia coli. We have obtained the natural form of Ole e 8 (nOle e 8) from the pollen and examined its immunologic equivalence with its recombinant form (rOle e 8). Size exclusion chromatography and a phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B affinity column were used to obtain nOle e 8 from the olive pollen. Inhibition assays by immunoblotting, using rOle e 8-specific rabbit antiserum, were performed to analyze the immunologic equivalence between the natural and the recombinant allergen, as well as to detect its presence in other pollens. Recombinant and natural Ole e 8 resulted immunologically equivalents, since they completely inhibited the IgG binding of the polyclonal antiserum to each other. Ole e 8-like proteins were detected in Oleaceae and Juniperus communis pollen, and might contribute to cross-reactivity processes between taxonomically related pollens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Allergenic components in melon extracts have not been described in spite of the fact that melon (Cucumis melo) is a frequent allergy-eliciting fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate allergenic components in melon extract and to report the identification of cucumisin as a major melon allergen.Materials and methods Sera from 35 patients allergic to melon were selected on the basis of clinical symptoms, skin prick tests and oral challenge test. Allergenic components were detected by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Molecular characterization of IgE-binding bands was performed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing.Results More than 10 IgE-binding bands, between 10 and 80 kDa, were identified in melon extract. Out of them, four IgE-binding bands were major allergens: 14 kDa, 36 kDa, 54 kDa and 67 kDa. These major allergens, except 14 kDa band, showed the same N-terminal sequence: T-T-R-S-W-D-F-L. Research conducted with protein databases identified this N-terminal sequence as cucumisin, an alkaline serine protease, which shares structural homology with microbial subtilisin. The molecular mass of the identified bands corresponds with different molecular forms of cucumisin produced during the processing or degradation of the enzyme: 67 kDa native cucumisin, 54 kDa mature cucumisin and 36 kDa NH2-terminal cucumisin fragment.Conclusion Cucumisin (Cuc m 1) and several N-terminal cucumisin fragments are the major allergens of melon. The ubiquitous distribution of this protein family (cucumisin-like proteases) in many plant species and its high structural similarity suggest its potential role as a new panallergen in plant foods.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Surface Science 228 (1990), S. 486-488 
    ISSN: 0039-6028
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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