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  • 1
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Anal sinus ; Anal intramuscular glands ; Anorectal band ; Epithelial debris ; Anal development ; Anal fissure ; Anal fistulas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The nature of anal sinus and anal intramuscular glands is well known, but their origin is still discussed. In the past years a surprising new theory about the invagination of the proctodeum into the hindgut was put forward. Evidence supporting this theory would be the existence of an “anorectal band” and “epithelial debris” in the subanoderm formed during total or partial obliteration of the anal sinuses. To characterize these histological structures, the authors examined 62 autopsy specimens with conventional and special immunohistologic staining methods. In none of the examined specimens could the structures mentioned above be detected. Nearly 90 percent of our specimens contained the well known anal sinuses. In fetuses, neonatal deaths, and children, more than one-half of the anal sinuses were accompanied by anal intramuscular glands penetrating the internal anal sphincter, whereas in adult specimens the anal intramuscular glands were rare. Eight postoperative, idiopathic chronic anal fissures and three postoperative anal fistulas examined with the same staining procedures showed epithelial cells at the base of the fissures or fistulas in two cases (25 percent) and three cases (100 percent), respectively. The results reinforce the theory that anal sinuses and anal intramuscular glands are separate anatomic entities and indicate a new theory of anal development. For idiopathic, chronic anal diseases anal sinuses have little surgical significance. Anal intramuscular glands should be the anatomic correlate of anal fistulas.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Microscopic peritoneal dissemination ; Colon-cancer ; Gastric cancer ; Prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract PURPOSE: We evaluated the incidence and prognostic relevance of microscopic intraperitoneal tumor cell dissemination of colon cancer in comparison with dissemination of gastric cancer as a rational for additive intraperitoneal therapy. METHODS: Peritoneal washouts of 90 patients with colon and 111 patients with gastric cancer were investigated prospectively. Sixty patients with benign diseases and 8 patients with histologically proven gross visible peritoneal carcinomatosis served as controls. Intraoperatively, 100 ml of warm NaCl 0.9 percent were instilled and 20 ml were reaspirated. In all patients hematoxylin and eosin staining (conventional cytology) was performed. Additionally, in 36 patients with colon cancer and 47 patients with gastric cancer, immunostaining with the HEA-125 antibody (immunocytology) was prepared. The results of cytology were assessed for an association with TNM category and cancer grade, based on all patients, and with patient survival, among the R0 resected patients. RESULTS: In conventional cytology 35.5 percent (32/90) of patients with colon cancer and 42.3 percent (47/111) of patients with gastric cancer had a positive cytology. In immunocytology 47.2 percent (17/36) of patients with colon cancer and 46.8 percent (22/47) of patients with gastric cancer were positive. In colon cancer, positive conventional cytology was associated with pT and M category (P=0.044 andP=0.0002), whereas immunocytology was only associated with M category (P=0.007). No association was found between nodal status and immunocytology in colon cancer and with the grading. There was a statistically significant correlation between pT M category and conventional and immunocytology in gastric cancer (P〈0.0015/P=0.007 andP〈0.001/P=0.009, respectively). Positive immunocytology was additionally associated with pN category (P=0.05). In a univariate analysis of R0 resected patients (no residual tumor), positive immunocytology was significantly related to an unfavorable prognosis in patients with gastric cancer only (n=30). Mean survival time was significantly increased in patients with gastric cancer with negative cytology compared with positive cytology (1,205 (standard error of the mean, 91)vs. 771 (standard error of the mean, 147) days;P=0.007) but not in patients with colon cancer (1,215 (standard error of the mean, 95)vs. 1,346 (standard error of the mean, 106) days;P=0.55). CONCLUSIONS: Because microscopic peritoneal dissemination influences survival time after R0 resections only in patients with gastric but not with colon cancer, our results may provide a basis for a decision on additive, prophylactic (intraperitoneal) therapy in gastric but not colon cancer.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Crocidura russula ; flank gland secretions ; gas chromatography ; flank gland size ; body mass ; blood parasites ; shrews
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Individual differences in flank gland secretions were examined among males of the monogamous shrewCrocidura russula during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Gas chromatography was used to measure intra- and interindividual variation of flank gland secretions of free-ranging shrews from different populations. The number of compounds detected by gas Chromatographic analyses was correlated with body mass, flank gland size, and the presence of blood parasites in individual shrews. Very few compounds were detected from the flank gland area of juvenile males. After they reached sexual maturity, however, the number of compounds detected from the flank gland secretions increased significantly. At the beginning of the reproductive season 48 different compounds were detected from male flank gland secretions. In the middle of the breeding season 70 compounds were detected, while only 11 compounds were detected during the nonbreeding season. Few compounds were common to all males. There were more volatile compounds in the flank gland secretions of males in the beginning of the breeding season than later in the breeding season. Males from the same population had fewer differences in the elution profile of compounds than males from different populations indicating that individuals from a distinct population have similar elution profiles of compounds and that each population has its own type of elution profile. No correlations were found between the number of compounds detected by gas chromatography for each male and the male's body mass or flank gland size. Blood parasites (trypanosomes,Trypanosoma crocidurae) were found in only three of 30 males investigated.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Sclerosis ; Internal anal sphincter ; Aging process ; Proctologic diseases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Functional and organic alterations such as sclerosis of the internal anal sphincter muscle are often discussed as a cause of proctologic diseases. Systematic histopathologic examinations of this muscle are rare, although the internal anal sphincter is of primary significance for the continence of the anal canal and its functional efficiency. The authors believe that the degree of formation of connective tissue in this unstriated muscle depends on the age of the examined specimen. The authors can demonstrate that sclerosis is a physiologic process of aging.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Adrenocortical cell nuclei of the dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius were investigated by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry in hibernating, arousing and euthermic individuals. While the basic structural constituents of the cell nucleus did not significantly modify in the three groups, novel structural components were found in nuclei of hibernating dormice. Lattice-like bodies (LBs), clustered granules (CGs), fibrogranular material (FGM) and granules associated with bundles of nucleoplasmic fibrils (NF) all contained ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), as shown by labeling with anti-snRNP (small nuclear RNP), anti-m3G-capped RNA and anti-hnRNP (heterogeneous nuclear RNP) antibodies. Moreover, the FGM also showed immunoreactivity for the proliferation associated nuclear antigen (PANA) and the non-snRNP splicing factor SC-35. All these nuclear structural components disappeared early during arousal and were not found in euthermic animals. These novel RNP-containing structures, which have not been observed in other tissues investigated so far in the same animal model, could represent storage and/or processing sites for pre-mRNA during the extreme metabolic condition of hibernation, to be quickly released upon arousal. NFs, which had been sometimes found devoid of associated granules in nuclei of brown adipose tissue from hi-bernating dormice, were present in much higher amounts in adrenocortical cell nuclei; they do not contain RNPs and their role remains to be elucidated. The possible roles of these structures are discussed in the frame of current knowledge of morpho-functional relationships in the cell nucleus.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Dense granular bodies (DGB) are particular structural constituents observed in cell nuclei of different tissues - liver, pancreas, brown adipose tissue, adrenal cortex - of hibernating dormice. They appear as strongly electron-dense clusters of closely packed granules, with thin fibrils spreading out at their periphery. DGB always occur in the nucleoplasm, sometimes making contact with other nuclear structural constituents typical of the hibernating state, such as coiled bodies, amorphous bodies and nucleoplasmic fibrils. DGB are present only during deep hibernation and rapidly disappear upon arousal from hibernation. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical analyses showed that DGB contain ribonucleoproteins and several nucleoplasmic RNA processing factors, suggesting that DGB can represent accumulation sites of splicing factors which are provided to splicing sites when normal metabolic activity is rapidly restored during arousal.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Dense granular bodies (DGB) are particular structural constituents observed in cell nuclei of different tissues—liver, pancreas, brown adipose tissue, adrenal cortex—of hibernating dormice. They appear as strongly electron-dense clusters of closely packed granules, with thin fibrils spreading out at their periphery. DGB always occur in the nucleoplasm, sometimes making contact with other nuclear structural constituents typical of the hibernating state, such as coiled bodies, amorphous bodies and nucleoplasmic fibrils. DGB are present only during deep hibernation and rapidly disappear upon arousal from hibernation. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical analyses showed that DGB contain ribonucleoproteins and several nucleoplasmic RNA processing factors, suggesting that DGB can represent accumulation sites of splicing factors which are provided to splicing sites when normal metabolic activity is rapidly restored during arousal.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Pancreas ; exocrine ; Hibernation ; Amylase ; Immunocytochemistry ; Muscardinus avellanarius (Rodentia)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pancreatic acinar cells of euthermic, hibernating and arousing individuals of the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius (Gliridae) have been observed at the electron-microscopic level and analysed by means of ultrastructural morphometry and immunocytochemistry in order to investigate possible fine structural changes of cellular components during periods of strikingly different degrees of metabolic activity. During hibernation, the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) flatten assuming a parallel pattern, the Golgi apparatus is extremely reduced and the mitochondria contain many electron-dense particles. The cell nuclei appear irregularly shaped, with deep indentations containing small zymogen granules. They also contain abundant coiled bodies and unusual constituents, such as amorphous bodies and dense granular bodies. Large numbers of zymogen granules occur in all animals. However, the acinar lumina are open and filled with zymogen only in euthermic animals, whereas, in hibernating and arousing individuals, they appear to be closed. Morphometrical analyses indicate that, in pancreatic acinar cells, nuclei and zymogen granules significantly decrease in size from euthermia to hibernation, probably reflecting a drastic decrease of metabolic activities, mainly protein synthesis and processing. In all the studied animals, immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies has revealed an increasing gradient in α-amylase content along the RER-Golgi-zymogen granule pathway, reflecting the protein concentration along the secretory pathway. Moreover, during deep hibernation, significantly larger amounts of α-amylase accumulate in RER and zymogen granules in comparison to the other seasonal phases analysed. Upon arousal, all cytoplasmic and nuclear constituents restore their euthermic aspect and all morphometrical and immunocytochemical parameters exhibit the euthermic values, thereby indicating a rapid resumption of metabolic activities.
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  • 9
  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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