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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  83. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie; 20120516-20120520; Mainz; DOC12hnod040 /20120404/
    Publication Date: 2012-04-05
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Abstract: The transcription factor Nkx2-1 belongs to the homeobox-encoding family of proteins that have essential functions in prenatal brain development. Nkx2-1 is required for the specification of cortical interneurons and several neuronal subtypes of the ventral forebrain. Moreover, this transcription factor is involved in migratory processes by regulating the expression of guidance molecules. Interestingly, Nkx2-1 expression was recently detected in the mouse brain at postnatal stages. Using two transgenic mouse lines that allow prenatal or postnatal cell type-specific deletion of Nkx2-1, we show that continuous expression of the transcription factor is essential for the maturation and maintenance of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in mice. Notably, prenatal deletion of Nkx2-1 in GAD67-expressing neurons leads to a nearly complete loss of cholinergic neurons and parvalbumin-containing GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain. We also show that postnatal mutation of Nkx2-1 in choline acetyltransferase-expressing cells causes a striking reduction in their number. These degenerative changes are accompanied by partial denervation of their target structures and results in a discrete impairment of spatial memory.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22098391
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  • 3
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  128. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20110503-20110506; München; DOC11dgch089 /20110520/
    Publication Date: 2011-05-20
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 4
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  78. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie e.V.; 20070516-20070520; München; DOC07hnod352 /20070424/
    Publication Date: 2007-04-24
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Ongoing axonal degeneration is thought to underlie disability in chronic neuroinflammation, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), especially during its progressive phase. Upon inflammatory attack, axons undergo pathological swelling, which can be reversible. Because we had evidence for beneficial effects of T helper 2 lymphocytes in experimental neurotrauma and discovered interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) expressed on axons in MS lesions, we aimed at unraveling the effects of IL-4 on neuroinflammatory axon injury. We demonstrate that intrathecal IL-4 treatment during the chronic phase of several experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models reversed disease progression without affecting inflammation. Amelioration of disability was abrogated upon neuronal deletion of IL-4R. We discovered direct neuronal signaling via the IRS1-PI3K-PKC pathway underlying cytoskeletal remodeling and axonal repair. Nasal IL-4 application, suitable for clinical translation, was equally effective in improving clinical outcome. Targeting neuronal IL-4 signaling may offer new therapeutic strategies to halt disability progression in MS and possibly also neurodegenerative conditions.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Mixed-ligand nonahalogenodirhodates(III) ; 103Rh nmr spectra ; chemical shift increments ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: 103Rh NMR Spectroscopic Evidence of Mixed Nonahalogenodirhodates(III), [Rh2ClnBr9-n]3-, n = 0-9On heating a mixture of the tetrabutylammonium salts (TBA)3[Rh2Cl9] and (TBA)3[Rh2Br9] at 60°C in propylenecarbonate the complete system of the mixed nonahalogenodirhodates(III) [Rh2ClnBr9-n]3-, n = 0-9 is formed. In the 103Rh nmr spectra 40 different species have been detected, 16 with two equivalent 103Rh atoms each resulting in one singlet and 24 with inequivalent 103Rh atoms each pair giving two resonances. The signals of the geometric isomeres are not resolved. All 64 expected resonances are really observed. By additional measuring of the 103Rh nmr spectra of the fractions n = 0-4 separable by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose, and utilizing characteristic increments of chemical shifts the complete and unambiguous assignment of all signals is achieved.
    Notes: Beim Erhitzen eines Gemisches der Tetrabutylammoniumsalze (TBA)3[Rh2Cl9] und (TBA)3[Rh2Br9] auf 60°C in Propylencarbonat entsteht die vollständige Serie der gemischten Nonahalogenodirhodate(III) [Rh2ClnBr9-n]3-, n = 0-9. Im 103Rh-NMR-Spektrum werden 40 unterschiedliche Spezies nachgewiesen, 16 mit zwei äquivalenten 103Rh-Atomen, die jeweils ein gemeinsames Signal ergeben, und 24 mit inäquivalenten 103Rh-Kernen, die zu je zwei Resonanzen führen. Die Signale von geometrischen Isomeren werden nicht aufgelöst. Alle 64 erwarteten Resonanzen werden tatsächlich beobachtet. Durch die Messung der 103Rh-NMR-Spektren der über Ionenaustauschchromatographie an DEAE-Cellulose trennbaren Fraktionen mit n = 0-4 und unter Verwendung von charakteristischen Inkrementen der chemischen Verschiebung ist die vollständige und eindeutige Zuordnung aller Signale gelungen.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Coefficient of Evaporative Heat Loss ; Convective Coefficient ; Mixed Convection ; Dripping Sweat Loss ; Coefficient d'évaporation ; Coefficient de convection ; Convection mixte ; Sueur non évaporée
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les auteurs ont déterminé expérimentalement chez l'homme, le coefficient d'échange de chaleur par évaporation (h e), lors d'aplications d'échelons d'humidité en air calme (V a〈-0,2 m/s). Une telle détermination exige une mouillure intégrale de la peau qui implique dès lors une perte de sueur par ruissellement. La récupération de la sueur de ruissellement permet l'évaluation de l'évaporation totale: celle-ci se faisant sur la peau et au niveau des gouttes de sueur durant leur trajet de la surface cutanée jusqu'au bac dans lequel la sueur de ruissellement est récupérée. Une évaluation de l'évaporation parasite se faisant sur la sueur de ruissellement permet d'estimer l'évaporation cutanée et par conséquent le coefficienth e. Dans nos conditions expérimentales: $$E = S - SNE - 0,005{\text{ }}SNE{\text{ }}(P_{S_{H_2 O} } - P_{a_{H_2 O} } )$$ oùE = débit évaporatoire cutané (g/h);S = débit sudoral total (g/h);SNE = débit de sueur non évaporée (g/h); $$P_{S_{H_2 O} } $$ = pression saturante de vapeur d'eau à la température cutanée (en mb) et $$P_{a_{H_2 O} } $$ = pression partielle de vapeur d'eau ambiante (mb). Le coefficient d'évaporation en air calme ainsi déterminé est de 5,18±0,22 W/m2 · mb.
    Notes: Abstract The authors have determined the coefficient of evaporative heat loss of the human body (h e) by means of humidity steps in low air movement (V a≤0,2 m/s). Such a determination requires a fully wetted skin and this implies therefore some loss of dripping sweat. The collection of this dripping sweat allows the determination of the total evaporation: this evaporation exists on the skin surface and around the drops during their fall from the skin to the oil pan where dripping sweat is collected. An estimation of this dripping sweat evaporation allows to assess the skin evaporation and, consequently, the evaporative coefficienth e. In these experimental conditions: ( $$E = S - SNE - 0,005{\text{ }}SNE{\text{ }}(P_{S_{H_2 O} } - P_{a_{H_2 O} } )$$ ) whereE is the skin evaporative rate (g/h);S = total sweat rate (g/h);SNE = the nonevaporative sweat rate (g/h); $$P_{S_{H_2 O} } $$ = the partial pressure of satured water (at $$\bar T_S $$ ) on skin (mb) and $$P_{a_{H_2 O} } $$ the partial pressure of water vapor in ambient air (mb). The coefficient of evaporative heat loss in low air movement thus found, is 5,18±0,22 W/m2 · mb.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Heart Rate ; Rectal Temperature ; Muscular Work ; Recovery ; Hot Environment ; Fréquence cardiaque ; Température rectale ; Exercice musculaire ; Récupération ; Ambiance chaude
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Dans le but d'analyser les facteurs qui déterminent les variations lentes de fréquence cardiaque au cours et après l'exercice musculaire, nous avons étudié chez 4 sujets les évolutions respectives de la fréquence cardiaque, de la température rectale, de la température cutanée moyenne, des lactates, des pyruvates et du glucose sanguin au cours d'exercices musculaires de puissances comprises entre 75 et 135 watt, effectués soit dans une ambiance neutre soit dans une ambiance chaude. Après les 5 premières min de travail, nous avons rarement observé une période d'état stable de la fréquence cardiaque: la fréquence cardiaque continue d'augmenter lentement jusqu'à la fin de la période d'exercice musculaire. Après les 5 premières min des périodes de récupération, la fréquence cardiaque continue de décroître lentement et tend vers son niveau initial de repos. L'analyse des évolutions simultanées de la fréquence cardiaque et des autres variables prises en compte nous a permis de conclure à un déterminisme thermique des variations lentes de fréquence cardiaque. Mises à part les á premières min des phases d'exercice musculaire et des phases de récupération, la fréquence cardiaque à un instant donné est fonction de la puissance mécanique développée, du niveau de température rectale atteint et de la différence entre la température rectale et la température cutanée moyenne. Une seule et même équation de prédiction permet de rendre compte du niveau de fréquence cardiaque atteint au repos ou au travail, dans une ambiance neutre ou chaude.
    Notes: Summary In order to analyse the factors controlling the slow heart rate variations during and after muscular exercise, the simultaneous evolutions of heart rate, rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, blood lactate, pyruvate and glucose have been investigated on 4 subjects, during muscular exercises at various work loads (between 75 and 135 Watt) in two thermal conditions (neutral and hot). After the first 5 min of work, a steady-state period of heart rate was only rarely observed: the heart rate continued to increase slowly during the subsequent period of bicycling. After the first 5 mm of recovery and of fast heart rate deceleration, the heart rate continued to decrease slowly to his initial rest level. The analysis of the simultaneous evolution of the heart rate and of the other variables taken into account, showed a thermal control of these slow variations of the heart rate. Except for the first 5 min of the exercise and recovery periods, the instantaneous heart rate is an additive function of the mechanical work load, of the rectal temperature level and of the difference between rectal and mean skin temperature. One single theoretical equation allows the prediction of the levels of heart rate at rest or at work, in a neutral as well as in a hot environment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Heat acclimation ; Transient thermal loads ; Local sweating response
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The sweating response was studied before and after passive humid heat acclimation in four resting male subjects who were exposed to slow thermal transients increasing air and wall temperatures from 28
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Recovery ; Rectal temperature ; Adaptation to work in heat ; Local skin temperature ; Récupération ; Température rectale ; Adaptation au travail à la chaleur ; Température cutanée locale
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Nous avons suivi l'évolution de la température rectale (T re ) au cours de la récupération consécutive à diverses charges thermiques (exogène, endogène ou mixte) avant et après une adaptation aux conditions expérimentales (10 jours consécutifs d'exposition à la condition C 1). Trois sujets ont subi après un repos de 30 min (T a = 28
    Notes: Summary Evolution of rectal temperature (T re ) during recovery in different air temperatures was studied following different patterns of heat load before and after adaptation to work in heat (10 consecutive days). Three subjects have been exposed, after a 30 min rest period (T a = 28
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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