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  • 1
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Bean ; Elongation growth ; Osmiophilic particles ; Pea ; Spruce ; Sunflower
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The occurrence of elongation growth-related osmiophilic particles (OPs) was investigated in hypocotyls of sunflower, bean, and spruce as well as in pea epicotyls and in cress roots of intact seedlings. In all analyzed species, OPs were found to occur specifically within the periplasmic space between plasma membrane and the outer epidermal cell walls of elongating parts of hypocotyls, epicotyls, and roots, whereas cells of nonelongating parts were devoid of OPs. Auxin (IAA) markedly increased the number of OPs in epicotyl and hypocotyl segments. Treatment of pea epicotyl segments with the lectin concanavalin A inhibited their elongation growth in the presence of IAA. At a subcellular level this effect was characterized by the occurrence of a pronounced osmiophilic layer in the periplasmic space of the outer periclinal and the outer part of the anticlinal epidermal cell walls. Treatment of IAA-incubated segments with the secretion inhibitor brefeldin A inhibited both elongation growth and periplasmic occurrence of OPs. This effect was accompanied by complementary accumulation of OPs in the peripheral cytoplasm of epidermal cells. Together the results indicate that IAA-induced epidermis-specific secretion of OPs is closely related to cell elongation growth not only in organs of monocotyledonous species, but also in dicotyledonous angiosperms as well as in gymnosperms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Arabinogalactan proteins ; Maize ; Phloem ; Root
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The cell-specific expression of two arabinogalactan protein (AGP) epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies JIM8 and JIM13 is reported in maize roots. Employing immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy, the JIM8 antibody was shown to label exclusively protophloem sieve elements, while the JIM13 antibody labelled sieve elements very strongly and adjacent pericycle and companion cells, as well as sloughing root cap cells less strongly. Since the labelling of sieve elements with JIM8 antibody was specific and did not spread to other cell types during root development, it is concluded that this AGP epitope can serve as a specific marker of these specialized cells within the maize root. In the case of the AGP epitope recognized by JIM13 antibody, part of the immunofluorescence label was also found to be associated with cytoplasmic strands in the pericycle and sloughing root cap cells. Immunogold-labelling of sieve elements revealed the association of both AGP epitopes (JIM8 and JIM13) with cortical sieve element reticulum and plasma membranes. Labelling of sieve element reticulum was prominent at its domains of adhesion to the plasma membrane, P-type plastids, and mitochondria. Based on our subcellular studies, we propose a new function of AGP epitopes in endomembrane recognition and adhesion within the sieve elements of maize roots.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Actin ; Cadherin ; Catenin ; Endoplasmic-reticulum membrane ; Maize ; Root
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary With heterologous antibodies raised against animal N-cadherin, α-catenin, and β-catenin, we have visualized their reactive proteins within cells of maize root apices. Embedding using Steedman's wax allowed us to accomplish tissue-specific analysis which revealed that cells of epidermis, endodermis/pericycle, and outer stele tissues, all of which are tightly associated to each other, are especially enriched with presumed plant homologues of N-cadherin and both catenins. In the root epidermis, trichoblasts initiating root hairs showed prominent accumulations of cadherin-like antigens at outgrowing domains where they co-localize with actin. Close associations of cadherin-like proteins with F-actin were detected in parenchymatic cells of the stele, also at the immunogold electron microscopy level. A possible role of these interesting proteins in membrane-membrane interactions is indicated by their prominent accumulations at endoplasmic-reticulum-enriched pit-field-based plant cell adhesion domains in plasmolyzing cells of maize root apices exposed to mannitol. Intriguingly, these unique adhesion domains of plasmolyzing cells are enriched with endoplasmic-reticulum-resident calreticulin. Cadherin-like, but not catenin-like, proteins were abundant also within the nucleoplasm.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Actin microfilaments ; Cell body ; Cell cycle ; Cell growth ; Cell polarity ; Microtubules
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Certain aspects of cellular behaviour in relation to growth and development of plants can be understood in terms of the “cell body” concept proposed by Daniel Mazia in 1993. During the interphase of the mitotic cell cycle, the plant cell body is held to consist of a nucleus and a perinuclear microtubule-organizing centre from which microtubules radiate into the cytoplasm. During mitosis and cytokinesis in meristematic cells, and also during the period of growth in post-mitotic cells immediately beyond the meristem, the plant cell body undergoes various characteristic morphological transformations, many of which are proposed as being related to changing structural connections with the actin-based component of the cytoskeleton and with specialized, plasma-membrane-associated sites at the cell periphery. In post-mitotic cells, these transformations of the plant cell body coincide with, and probably provide conditions for, the various pathways of development which such cells follow. They are also responsible, for the acquisition of new cellular polarities. Events in which the plant cell body participates include the formation of a mitotic spindle, phragmoplast, and new cell division wall, the rearrangement of a diffuse type of cell wall growth into tip growth (as occurs, e.g., during the initiation and subsequent development of root hairs), and the growth and division that occurs in reactivated vacuolate cells. If more evidence can be marshalled in support of the existence and properties of the plant cell body, then this concept could prove useful in interpreting the cytological bases of a range of developmental events in plants.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Arabinogalactan protein ; Drosera capensis ; Endoplasmic reticulum ; Golgi apparatus ; Tonoplast ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are proteoglycans detected in high amounts at plant cell surfaces; however, details of their subcellular localization are largely unknown. Immunolocalization studies with the anti-AGP monoclonal antibody LM2 have indicated that this AGP epitope is associated with secretory compartments such as endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus within plant cells actively producing and secreting AGPs. The LM2 epitope contains a β-linked glucuronic acid residue and occurs in the polysaccharide moiety of AGPs. We have localized this AGP epitope also to the tonoplast and to cytoplasmic strands. Endomembrane association of AGPs was confirmed with two other monoclonal antibodies, JIM13 and MAC207, both reacting with carbohydrate AGP epitopes containing GlcpA-β(1→3)-D-GalpA-α(1→2)-L-Rha residues. Immunocytochemistry is supported by biochemical analysis which shows that LM2 reacts with the microsomal fraction and also with low-molecular-weight material of the detergent phase after Triton X-114 phase separation prepared from maize roots. Our results indicate that some AGP epitopes are closely associated with endomembranes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Brefeldin A ; Gravitropism ; Osmiophilic particles ; Secretion inhibition ; Secale cereale
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The occurrence of IAA-inducible osmiophilic particles (OPs) in the periplasmic space of epidermal cells in the upper and lower flank (UF, LF) of gravistimulated rye coleoptile segments was analyzed employing brefeldin A (BFA) as an inhibitor of secretion at the plasma membrane. A 2 h horizontal gravistimulation of untreated samples caused a duplication of OPs in the periplasmic space of epidermal cells at the growth-inhibited UF as compared to the LF of upward bending coleoptile segments. In contrast to this, the number of OPs within the cytoplasm close to the plasma membrane of epidermal cells was similar at both flanks. BFA caused an inhibition of graviresponsive growth and prevented the occurrence of OPs in the periplasmic space of the epidermal cells of the UF and the LF. Likewise, growth of vertically oriented coleoptile segments was inhibited by BFA. Growth inhibition of both gravistimulated and control segments was accompanied by a twofold increase of the occurrence of cytoplasmic OPs. The results illustrate that the occurrence of OPs within the periplasmic space of the epidermal cells depends on secretion processes. Furthermore they provide evidence that their increased occurrence in the growth-inhibited UF during gravistimulation is due to their inhibited infiltration into the cell walls. We suggest that thereby wall loosening is temporarily prevented.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Funaria protonemata ; Chara rhizoid ; Actin filament ; Phallotoxin ; Rhodamine ; Fluorescein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A simple method is introduced to visualize actin filaments in plant cells without previous aldehyde fixation and/or additional extraction procedures. The concentration dependence of differently modified phallotoxins was examined. Displacement and competition experiments were performed to demonstrate the differences between phallotoxins, unlabeled or labeled with different fluorochromes. The procedure is valid for several plant cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0005-2787
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Thin-layer chromatography ; Reversed phases ; Ion pair chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The results of investigations with ion pair chromatography on RP2, RP8 and RP18 thin layers are described. Heptane sulphonic acid is used as ion pair former. The best results are achieved on RP18-layers with the counter ion in the mobile phase.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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