Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract Brequinar (DUP 785; NSC 368390) is a quinoline carboxylic acid derivative that inhibits pyrimidine synthesis at the level of dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase and revealed synergy with cisplatin in preclinical models. In this study investigating the pharmacokinetic and toxicity of brequinar in combination with cisplatin, patients were initially treated with weekly brequinar, in combination with an every-three-week administration of cisplatin. Due to toxicity, the schedule was modified to a 28-day cycle with brequinar given on days 1, 8, 15, and cisplatin on day 1. A total of 24 patients (16 male, 8 female; median age 57; median performance status 1) received 69 courses of therapy. Six dose levels were explored, with cisplatin/ brequinar doses, respectively, of 50/500, 50/650, 50/860, 60/860, 75/650, and 75/860 mg/m2. The serum concentration versus time curves for brequinar were biphasic. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic results after the first and third doses of brequinar indicate that the presence of 50, 60, and 75 mg/m2cisplatin did not change the protein binding and the pharmacokinetics of brequinar in any of the three brequinar-dose groups. Total cisplatin plasma pharmacokinetic followed a triphasic-shape curve and unbound cisplatin decayed at a very rapid rate. Since pharmacokinetic parameters for total cisplatin in this study were similar to those reported in the literature, the presence of brequinar is unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin. Main dose-limiting toxicities included myelosuppression (including neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) and mucositis. Cisplatin/brequinar doses of 50/500, 50/650, 50/860, 60/860, 75/650, and 75/860 mg/m2, were associated with dose limiting toxicity in 0/3, 1/3, 1/3, 1/3, 2/4, 2/5, and 4/6 patients, respectively. This study shows that co-administration of brequinar and cisplatin does not affect the pharmacokinetic properties of either drug and that the MTDs of cisplatin/brequinar combinations are 60/860 mg/m2 or 75/650 mg/m2. From this study, we conclude that full dose of 75 mg/m2 cisplatin (day 1) can be administered with 650 mg/m2 brequinar (days 1, 8 and 15) without significant modifications of individual drug pharmacokinetic parameters.
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