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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; DISEASE ; RISK ; ACTIVATION ; ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOMA ; AGE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; DOSE-RESPONSE ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL ; SMOKERS ; EUROPE ; INTERVIEW ; Hodgkin's lymphoma ; DRINKING ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; RE ; alcohol drinking ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; NEVER SMOKERS ; odds ratio ; HEMATOLYMPHOPOIETIC MALIGNANCIES ; STERNBERG CELLS
    Abstract: We analysed the effects of tobacco and alcohol in the aetiology of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), based on 340 cases and 2465 controls enrolled in Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Ireland and Czech Republic, between 1998 and 2004. Current smokers showed a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) of HL of 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.87). Analyses were also conducted separately for subjects younger than 35 years (179 cases) and for older subjects (161 cases). For subjects below age 35, no association was observed between tobacco and HL, whereas for older subjects, ever-smokers experienced a doubled risk of HL as compared to never smokers and the OR of HL for current smoking was 2.35 (95% CI = 1.52-3.61), with suggestion of a dose response relationship. A protective effect of alcohol was observed in both age groups. The OR for ever-regular drinking was 0.58 (95% CI = 0.38-0.89) for younger subjects and 0.50 (95% CI = 0.34-0.74) for older subjects. There was no evidence of interaction between tobacco and alcohol. Our results are consistent with previous studies, suggesting a protective effect of alcohol on HL. An effect of tobacco was suggested for HL occurring in middle and late age, although this finding might have occurred by chance
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16819547
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; Germany ; neoplasms ; DIAGNOSIS ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; BREAST ; LYMPHOMA ; NUMBER ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; risk factors ; case-control studies ; INHIBITORS ; case-control study ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; DRUGS ; RISK-FACTOR ; PRAVASTATIN ; PROTEIN GERANYLGERANYLATION
    Abstract: Background: Statins, drugs used to treat dyslipidemia, may have anticancer properties. We have evaluated lymphoma risk associated with regular statin use in an international case-control study. Methods: This case-control study included 2,362 cases of incident B- and T-cell lymphoma from Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Spain and 2,206 hospital or population controls. Information on drug use, diagnosis at admission (for hospital controls), and putative risk factors for lymphoma was collected with personal interviews. Hospital controls admitted for diseases possibly entailing use of statins were excluded from the analysis. Results: The odds ratio for regular statin use was 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.84); all major lymphoma subtypes showed similarly decreased risks. Decreased risks were observed in all centers. Duration of statin use was not associated with a greater reduction in the risk of lymphoma. Use of other lipid lowering drugs, such as fibrates, did not significantly modify the risk of lymphoma (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.27). Conclusion: Statin use was associated with an important reduction in lymphoma risk, adding to the growing evidence of anticancer properties of this group of drugs. These results are reassuring for the increasing number of patients taking statins on a regular basis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16702371
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; human ; neoplasms ; RISK ; TIME ; ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCIES ; WOMEN ; MEN ; leukemia ; cancer risk ; CARCINOGENS ; hair dyes ; case-control studies ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCY ; PRODUCTS ; HUMAN CANCER ; INCREASE ; INTERVAL ; odds ratio ; population-based ; CANCER-RISK ; lymphatic system
    Abstract: Hair dyes have been evaluated as possibly being mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals. Studies of the association between human cancer risk and use of hair dyes have yielded inconsistent results. The authors evaluated the risk of lymphoid malignancies associated with personal use of hair dyes. The analysis included 2,302 incident cases of lymphoid neoplasms and 2,417 hospital- or population-based controls from the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Spain (1998-2003). Use of hair dyes was reported by 74% of women and 7% of men. Lymphoma risk among dye users was significantly increased by 19% in comparison with never use (odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.41) and by 26% among persons who used hair dyes 12 or more times per year (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.60; p for linear trend = 0.414). Lymphoma risk was significantly higher among persons who had started coloring their hair before 1980 (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.72) and persons who had used hair dyes only before 1980 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.40). Personal use of hair dyes is associated with a moderate increase in lymphoma risk, particularly among women and persons who used dyes before 1980. Specific compounds associated with this risk remain to be elucidated
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16731576
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  • 4
  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; neoplasms ; POLYMORPHISMS ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; SAN-FRANCISCO ; AGGREGATION ; FRANCISCO BAY AREA ; CONNECTICUT WOMEN ; MIGRANTS
    Abstract: A role for genetic susceptibility in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is supported by the accumulating evidence of common genetic variations altering NHL risk. However, the pattern of NHL heritability remains poorly understood. We conducted a pooled analysis of 10 211 NHL cases and 11905 controls from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) to evaluate NHL risk among those with hematopoietic malignancies in first-degree relatives. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of NHL and its subtypes were estimated from unconditional logistic regression models with adjustment for confounders. NHL risk was elevated for individuals who reported first-degree relatives with NHL (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-1.9), Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.6; 95% Cl = 1.1-2.3), and leukemia (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-2.7). Risk was highest among individuals who reported a brother with NHL (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.6-4.8) and was consistent for all NHL subtypes evaluated. If a first-degree relative had Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL risk was highest if the relative was a parent (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.0-2.9). If a first-degree relative had leukemia, NHL risk was highest among women who reported a sister with leukemia (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.6-5.6). The pattern of NHL heritability appeared to be uniform across NHL subtypes, but risk patterns differed by specific hematopoietic malignancies and the sex of the relative, revealing critical clues to disease etiology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17185468
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; neoplasms ; CLASSIFICATION ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; HISTORY ; RISK ; TUMORS ; FAMILY ; LYMPHOMA ; HEALTH ; AGE ; family history ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; case-control studies ; CHILDREN ; familial cancer ; heredity ; RELATIVES ; non-hodgkin's lymphoma ; Hodgkin's lymphoma ; CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC-LEUKEMIA ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; case-control study ; AGGREGATION ; FAMILIES ; CLL ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; familial aggregation ; LYMPHOMAS ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; INCREASED RISK ; odds ratio ; B-CELL ; TRANSMISSION ; 1ST-DEGREE RELATIVES ; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
    Abstract: Lymphomas have a potentially important familial component; large studies using recent classification systems are lacking. Based on a multicentre case-control study in seven European countries, we recruited 2480 cases of lymphoid neoplasms (LN) and 2540 controls, matched by country, age and sex. Diagnoses were established according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer in first-degree relatives and for the kind of relative affected. The OR of LN for a family history of haematological cancer was 1.6 (OR = 1.2-2.1). The OR was particularly high for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (OR = 2.9 [1.9-4.5]). A familial case of lymphoma increased the risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) (OR = 3.4 [1.5-7.8]). No increased risk was observed for diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas. For CLL and HL, the risk was similar in parents, offspring and siblings. Our study suggests familial aggregation of CLL with a family history of haematological cancer and of HL with a family history of lymphoma. The transmission pattern suggests a dominant model of heredity. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16928444
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  • 7
    Keywords: Germany ; neoplasms ; SYSTEM ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCIES ; NUMBER ; case-control studies ; CHILDREN ; PROJECT ; ATOPY ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCY ; ONCOLOGY ; DISORDERS ; case control study ; case-control study ; HAY-FEVER ; HYGIENE HYPOTHESIS ; RE ; SIBLINGS ; DETERMINANTS ; INCREASE ; allergy ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; case control studies ; BIRTH-ORDER ; birth order ; cancer epidemiology ; family size ; FAMILY-SIZE ; FRANCISCO BAY AREA ; HUMAN-MILK ; MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMAS
    Abstract: Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies of the immune system. Recent studies suggest that immunological conditions which are modulated by lifestyle-dependent environmental determinants might affect lymphoma risk. We used data from Epilymph, a European multi-centric case-control study with 2480 cases and 2540 controls, to analyse the relationship between lifestyle-dependent immunological determinants and risk of lymphomas. We found an inverse relationship between risk of lymphoma and allergies, mainly respiratory (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.89-1.01) and food allergies (OR = 0.67, CI = 0.52-0.85), a slightly elevated lymphoma risk for first-born children (OR = 1.17, CI = 0.99-1.39) and only children (OR = 1.10, CI = 0.86-1.39). The inverse relationship between atopic disorders and risk of lymphomas is consistent with earlier observations. Our findings on birth order and lymphoma increase the inconsistency of findings across studies and suggest a critical reappraisal of potential underlying mechanisms. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17481729
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  • 8
    Keywords: Germany ; COHORT ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOMA ; AGE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; etiology ; MEN ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; RECRUITMENT ; UNITED-STATES ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EUROPE ; non-hodgkin's lymphoma ; MULTICENTER ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; OLDER WOMEN ; case-control study ; RE ; case control studies ; SUBTYPES ; pooled analysis ; CANCER-MORTALITY ; MULTICENTER CASE-CONTROL ; non-Hodgkin's
    Abstract: To study the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), we conducted a multicenter case-control study in Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland and Czech Republic between 1998 and 2004, which included 1,742 cases of NHL and 2,465 controls matched on age, sex and recruitment area. Tobacco smoking was not associated with the risk of NHL overall or with risk of specific histological subtypes. Similarly, there was no association between alcohol drinking and the risk of NHL overall or across histological subtypes. However. a protective effect of alcohol drinking was observed among men (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.93) and in non-Mediterranean countries (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.86). There was no evidence of interaction between alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking in NHL etiology. The results of this large-scale European study did not support an association between tobacco and NHL and suggested a protective effect of alcohol on development of NHL for men and in non-Mediterranean countries. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss. Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16557575
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  • 9
    Keywords: Germany ; human ; MODEL ; EXPOSURE ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; HISTORY ; RISK ; RNA ; INFECTION ; FAMILY ; T cell ; T-CELL ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; virus ; LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANCIES ; AGE ; family history ; etiology ; COUNTRIES ; leukemia ; PATHOGENESIS ; REPLICATION ; case-control studies ; INDIVIDUALS ; PREVALENCE ; INTERVIEW ; MULTICENTER ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; immunoassay ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; SERUM ; MALIGNANCY ; case-control study ; RE ; FAMILIES ; VIRUS-INFECTION ; LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS ; MIXED CRYOGLOBULINEMIA ; METAANALYSIS ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; ENZYME ; SUBTYPES ; LYMPHOMAS ; SIZE ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; odds ratio ; B-CELL ; EXPOSURES ; MULTICENTER CASE-CONTROL ; RARE ; SAMPLE-SIZE ; HCV INFECTION
    Abstract: Background & Aims: Increasing evidence points toward a role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the etiology of malignant lymphomas. However, previous epidemiologic studies were limited in size to establish an association between HCV infection and specific lymphoma subtypes. We performed a large, multicenter, case-control study to address this question. Methods: The study comprised 5 European countries and included newly diagnosed cases of any lymphoid malignancy recruited between 1998 and 2004. Controls were matched to cases by 5-year age group, sex, and study center. In-person interviews were conducted to collect data on demographic, medical, and family history as well as environmental exposures. Serum samples of 1807 cases and 1788 controls (excluding human immunodeficiency virus-positive and organ-transplantation subjects) were screened for HCV infection using an enzyme immunoassay. Positive as well as randomly selected negative samples were subjected to HCV RNA detection and HCV genotyping. Results: HCV infection was detected in 53 (2.9%) lymphoma cases and in 41 (2.3%) control subjects (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-2.15). Restricted to individuals who tested positive for HCV-RNA (indicating persistent infection and active viral replication), the OR was 1.82 (95% CI: 1.13-2.91). In subtype-specific analyses, HCV prevalence was associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.23-3.91) but not with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or follicular, Hodgkin's, or T-cell lymphoma. The sample size was not sufficient to derive any conclusions for rare lymphoma entities such as splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Conclusions: These results support a model that chronic HCV replication contributes to lymphomagenesis and establish a specific role of HCV infection in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17087949
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; SUPPORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; LONG-TERM ; RISK ; COMPONENTS ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; UNITED-STATES ; case-control studies ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA ; WEIGHT ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; analysis ; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ; SUBTYPES ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; pooled analysis ; OVERWEIGHT ; USA ; BMI ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; B-CELL ; ENGLAND ; RATIO ; non Hodgkin lymphoma ; EXCESS ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; NO EVIDENCE ; non-Hodgkin ; CONSORTIUM ; nutritional status ; INTERLYMPH ; body mass index weight ; FORMER COLLEGE-STUDENTS ; LYMPHOHEMATOPOIETIC MALIGNANCIES ; SCANDINAVIAN MEN
    Abstract: Nutritional status is known to alter immune function, a suspected risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). To investigate whether long-term over, or under, nutrition is associated with NHL, self-reported anthropometric data on weight and height from over 10,000 cases of NHL and 16,000 controls were pooled across 18 case-control studies identified through the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression and combined using a random-effects model. Severe obesity, defined as BMI of 40 kg m(-2) or more, was not associated with NHL overall (pooled OR = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.41) or the majority of NHL subtypes. An excess was however observed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (pooled OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.24-2.62), although not all study-specific ORs were raised. Among the overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg m(-2)) and obese (BMI 30-39.9 kg m(-2)), associations were elevated in some studies and decreased in others, while no association was observed among the underweight (BMI 〈 18.5 kg m(-2)). There was little suggestion of increasing ORs for NHL or its subtypes with every 5 kg m(-2) rise in BMI above 18.5 kg m(-2). BMI components height and weight were also examined, and the tallest men, but not women, were at marginally increased risk (pooled OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.34). In summary, whilst we conclude that there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity is a determinant of all types of NHL combined, the association between severe obesity and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma may warrant further investigation. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18167059
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