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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-04-12
    Description: Observations with the Venus Express magnetometer and low-energy particle detector revealed magnetic field and plasma behavior in the near-Venus wake that is symptomatic of magnetic reconnection, a process that occurs in Earth's magnetotail but is not expected in the magnetotail of a nonmagnetized planet such as Venus. On 15 May 2006, the plasma flow in this region was toward the planet, and the magnetic field component transverse to the flow was reversed. Magnetic reconnection is a plasma process that changes the topology of the magnetic field and results in energy exchange between the magnetic field and the plasma. Thus, the energetics of the Venus magnetotail resembles that of the terrestrial tail, where energy is stored and later released from the magnetic field to the plasma.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, T L -- Lu, Q M -- Baumjohann, W -- Russell, C T -- Fedorov, A -- Barabash, S -- Coates, A J -- Du, A M -- Cao, J B -- Nakamura, R -- Teh, W L -- Wang, R S -- Dou, X K -- Wang, S -- Glassmeier, K H -- Auster, H U -- Balikhin, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 4;336(6081):567-70. doi: 10.1126/science.1217013. Epub 2012 Apr 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China. tielong.zhang@oeaw.ac.at〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22491094" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using very high time resolution measurements, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy, (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy, and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Burch, J L -- Torbert, R B -- Phan, T D -- Chen, L-J -- Moore, T E -- Ergun, R E -- Eastwood, J P -- Gershman, D J -- Cassak, P A -- Argall, M R -- Wang, S -- Hesse, M -- Pollock, C J -- Giles, B L -- Nakamura, R -- Mauk, B H -- Fuselier, S A -- Russell, C T -- Strangeway, R J -- Drake, J F -- Shay, M A -- Khotyaintsev, Yu V -- Lindqvist, P-A -- Marklund, G -- Wilder, F D -- Young, D T -- Torkar, K -- Goldstein, J -- Dorelli, J C -- Avanov, L A -- Oka, M -- Baker, D N -- Jaynes, A N -- Goodrich, K A -- Cohen, I J -- Turner, D L -- Fennell, J F -- Blake, J B -- Clemmons, J -- Goldman, M -- Newman, D -- Petrinec, S M -- Trattner, K J -- Lavraud, B -- Reiff, P H -- Baumjohann, W -- Magnes, W -- Steller, M -- Lewis, W -- Saito, Y -- Coffey, V -- Chandler, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 May 12. pii: aaf2939.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA. jburch@swri.edu. ; Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA. University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA. ; University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. ; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. ; University of Colorado LASP, Boulder, CO, USA. ; Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, UK. ; West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. ; University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA. ; Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria. ; Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA. ; Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA. ; University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA. ; Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden. ; Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. ; Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA, USA. ; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. ; Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA, USA. ; Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, France. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA. ; Institute for Space and Astronautical Sciences, Sagamihara, Japan. ; NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27174677" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Advances in Space Research 2 (1982), S. 55-62 
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Advances in Space Research 2 (1982), S. 55-62 
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Magnetospheric physics (electric fields ; plasma convection ; instruments and techniques)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present the first triangulation measurements of electric fields with the electron drift instrument (EDI) on Equator-S. We show results from five high-data-rate passes of the satellite through the near-midnight equatorial region, at geocentric distances of approximately 5–6 RE, during geomagnetically quiet conditions. In a co-rotating frame of reference, the measured electric fields have magnitudes of a few tenths of mV/m, with the E × B drift generally directed sunward but with large variations. Temporal variations of the electric field on time scales of several seconds to minutes are large compared to the average magnitude. Comparisons of the “DC” baseline of the EDI-measured electric fields with the mapped Weimer ionospheric model and the Rowland and Wygant CRRES measurements yield reasonable agreement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Magnetospheric physics (electric fields ; plasma convection ; instruments and techniques)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present the first electron time-of-flight measurements obtained with the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on Equator-S. These measurements are made possible by amplitude-modulation and coding of the emitted electron beams and correlation with the signal from the returning electrons. The purpose of the time-of-flight measurements is twofold. First, they provide the drift velocity, and thus the electric field, when the distance the electrons drift in a gyro period becomes sufficiently large. Second, they provide the gyro time of the electrons emitted by the instrument, and thus the magnitude of the ambient magnetic field, allowing in-flight calibration of the flux-gate magnetometer with high precision. Results of both applications are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Magnetospheric physics (instruments and techniques) ; Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The special feature of the ringcore fluxgate magnetometer on Equator-S is the high time and field resolution. The scientific aim of the experiment is the investigation of waves in the 10–100 picotesla range with a time resolution up to 64 Hz. The instrument characteristics and the influence of the spacecraft on the magnetic field measurement will be discussed. The work shows that the applied pre- and inflight calibration techniques are sufficient to suppress spacecraft interferences. The offset in spin axis direction was determined for the first time with an independent field measurement by the Equator-S Electron Drift Instrument. The data presented gives an impression of the accuracy of the measurement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence ; plasma waves and turbulence)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5–1 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5°.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause ; cusp ; and boundary layers ; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics ; solar wind ; magnetosphere interactions)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An electrostatic analyser (ESA) onboard the Equator-S spacecraft operating in coordination with a potential control device (PCD) has obtained the first accurate electron energy spectrum with energies &7 eV-100 eV in the vicinity of the magnetopause. On 8 January, 1998, a solar wind pressure increase pushed the magnetopause inward, leaving the Equator-S spacecraft in the magnetosheath. On the return into the magnetosphere approximately 80 min later, the magnetopause was observed by the ESA and the solid state telescopes (the SSTs detected electrons and ions with energies &20–300 keV). The high time resolution (3 s) data from ESA and SST show the boundary region contains of multiple plasma sources that appear to evolve in space and time. We show that electrons with energies &7 eV–100 eV permeate the outer regions of the magnetosphere, from the magnetopause to &6Re. Pitch-angle distributions of &20–300 keV electrons show the electrons travel in both directions along the magnetic field with a peak at 90° indicating a trapped configuration. The IMF during this interval was dominated by Bx and By components with a small Bz.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles trapped ; plasma convection ; storms and substorms)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract During the main and early recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm on February 18, 1998, the Equator-S ion composition instrument (ESIC) observed spectral features which typically represent the differences in loss along the drift path in the energy range (5–15 keV/e) where the drift changes from being E × B dominated to being gradient and curvature drift dominated. We compare the expected energy spectra modeled using a Volland-Stern electric field and a Weimer electric field, assuming charge exchange along the drift path, with the observed energy spectra for H+ and O+. We find that using the Weimer electric field gives much better agreement with the spectral features, and with the observed losses. Neither model, however, accurately predicts the energies of the observed minima.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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