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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-02-22
    Description: The identification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations in human cancers has rekindled the idea that altered cellular metabolism can transform cells. Inactivating SDH and FH mutations cause the accumulation of succinate and fumarate, respectively, which can inhibit 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent enzymes, including the EGLN prolyl 4-hydroxylases that mark the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor for polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Inappropriate HIF activation is suspected of contributing to the pathogenesis of SDH-defective and FH-defective tumours but can suppress tumour growth in some other contexts. IDH1 and IDH2, which catalyse the interconversion of isocitrate and 2-OG, are frequently mutated in human brain tumours and leukaemias. The resulting mutants have the neomorphic ability to convert 2-OG to the (R)-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG). Here we show that (R)-2HG, but not (S)-2HG, stimulates EGLN activity, leading to diminished HIF levels, which enhances the proliferation and soft agar growth of human astrocytes. These findings define an enantiomer-specific mechanism by which the (R)-2HG that accumulates in IDH mutant brain tumours promotes transformation and provide a justification for exploring EGLN inhibition as a potential treatment strategy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3656605/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3656605/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koivunen, Peppi -- Lee, Sungwoo -- Duncan, Christopher G -- Lopez, Giselle -- Lu, Gang -- Ramkissoon, Shakti -- Losman, Julie A -- Joensuu, Paivi -- Bergmann, Ulrich -- Gross, Stefan -- Travins, Jeremy -- Weiss, Samuel -- Looper, Ryan -- Ligon, Keith L -- Verhaak, Roel G W -- Yan, Hai -- Kaelin, William G Jr -- R01 CA068490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA140316/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 15;483(7390):484-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10898.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biocenter Oulu, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oulu Center for Cell-Matrix Research, University of Oulu, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22343896" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Astrocytes/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation/drug effects ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/*drug effects/genetics/*metabolism ; Dioxygenases/genetics/*metabolism ; Enzyme Activation/drug effects ; Glioma/enzymology/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Glutarates/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Humans ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase/genetics/metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Oncogenes ; Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-07-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705935/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705935/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaelin, William G Jr -- R01 CA068490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA076120/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 27;337(6093):421-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1225787.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Adult Oncology, Office M457, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. william_kaelin@dfci.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22837515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Animals ; *Gene Knockdown Techniques/methods/standards ; Gene Targeting ; Genes/*physiology ; High-Throughput Screening Assays ; Humans ; Mammals/*genetics ; Phenotype ; *RNA Interference ; RNA, Small Interfering/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-02-09
    Description: Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2, the genes coding for isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2, are common in several human cancers, including leukemias, and result in overproduction of the (R)-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate [(R)-2HG]. Elucidation of the role of IDH mutations and (R)-2HG in leukemogenesis has been hampered by a lack of appropriate cell-based models. Here, we show that a canonical IDH1 mutant, IDH1 R132H, promotes cytokine independence and blocks differentiation in hematopoietic cells. These effects can be recapitulated by (R)-2HG, but not (S)-2HG, despite the fact that (S)-2HG more potently inhibits enzymes, such as the 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylase TET2, that have previously been linked to the pathogenesis of IDH mutant tumors. We provide evidence that this paradox relates to the ability of (S)-2HG, but not (R)-2HG, to inhibit the EglN prolyl hydroxylases. Additionally, we show that transformation by (R)-2HG is reversible.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836459/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836459/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Losman, Julie-Aurore -- Looper, Ryan E -- Koivunen, Peppi -- Lee, Sungwoo -- Schneider, Rebekka K -- McMahon, Christine -- Cowley, Glenn S -- Root, David E -- Ebert, Benjamin L -- Kaelin, William G Jr -- P30 DK049216/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA068490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Mar 29;339(6127):1621-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1231677. Epub 2013 Feb 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393090" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics/*metabolism ; Glutarates/*metabolism ; *Hematopoiesis ; Humans ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase/genetics/*metabolism ; Leukemia/*enzymology/genetics ; Models, Biological ; Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase/*antagonists & inhibitors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-03
    Description: Thalidomide-like drugs such as lenalidomide are clinically important treatments for multiple myeloma and show promise for other B cell malignancies. The biochemical mechanisms underlying their antitumor activity are unknown. Thalidomide was recently shown to bind to, and inhibit, the cereblon ubiquitin ligase. Cereblon loss in zebrafish causes fin defects reminiscent of the limb defects seen in children exposed to thalidomide in utero. Here we show that lenalidomide-bound cereblon acquires the ability to target for proteasomal degradation two specific B cell transcription factors, Ikaros family zinc finger proteins 1 and 3 (IKZF1 and IKZF3). Analysis of myeloma cell lines revealed that loss of IKZF1 and IKZF3 is both necessary and sufficient for lenalidomide's therapeutic effect, suggesting that the antitumor and teratogenic activities of thalidomide-like drugs are dissociable.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070318/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070318/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lu, Gang -- Middleton, Richard E -- Sun, Huahang -- Naniong, MarkVic -- Ott, Christopher J -- Mitsiades, Constantine S -- Wong, Kwok-Kin -- Bradner, James E -- Kaelin, William G Jr -- R01 CA068490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA076120/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 17;343(6168):305-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1244917. Epub 2013 Nov 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292623" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ikaros Transcription Factor/genetics/*metabolism ; Multiple Myeloma/*metabolism ; Peptide Hydrolases/genetics/*metabolism ; Proteolysis ; Teratogens/*pharmacology ; Thalidomide/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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