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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; Salmonids ; Nucleotide sequence ; Transitions ; Transversions ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Sequence comparisons were made from 2214 bp of mitochondrial DNA cloned from six Pacific salmonid species. These sequences include the genes for ATPase subunit 6, cytochrome oxidase subunit 3, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L, tRNAGLY, and tRNAARG. Variation is found at 338 silent and 12 nonsilent positions of protein coding genes and 10 positions in the two tRNA sequences. A single 3-bp length difference was also detected. In all pairwise comparisons the sequence divergence observed in the fragment was higher than that previously predicted by restriction enzyme analysis of the entire molecule. The inferred evolutionary relationship of these species is consistent between methods. The distribution of silent variation shows a complex pattern with greatly reduced variation at the junctions of genes. The variation in the tRNA sequences is concentrated in the DHU loop. The close relationship of these species and extensive sequence analyzed allows for an analysis of the spectrum of substitutions that includes the frequencies of all 12 possible substitutions. The observed spectrum of substitutions is related to potential pathways of spontaneous substitution. The salmonid sequences show an extremely high ratio of silent to replacement substitutions. In addition the amino acid sequences of the four proteins coded in this fragment show a consistently high level of identity with theXenopus sequences. Taken together these data are consistent with a slower rate of amino acid substitution among the cold-blooded vertebrates when compared to mammals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In the absence of reliable morphological characters, or in conjunction with morphology-based identifications, meiofaunal turbellarians may also be identified using the nucleotide sequence of a portion of the large subunit of the ribosomal RNA (26/28S rRNA). A 284 base pair-long region of the 26/28S rRNA has been identified by isolating genomic DNA from ten species of turbellarians belonging to four orders, namely, the Proseriata, Macrostomida, Prolecithophora and Acoela. The proseriates had been collected from localities in Europe and Israel and were preserved in ethanol. The remaining turbellarians were isolated from intertidal sediment samples collected from two sites on the Maine and New Hampshire coast, USA in 1992. Amplification of the genomic DNA was carried out using two primers designed to match the nucleotide sequence of a portion of the 26/28S rDNA gene of the terrestrial nematode,Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas 1900). This area consists of a highly variable, about 150 base pair-long region, called the D3 expansion segment, followed by a very conserved stretch of sequence. When folded into its secondary structure, the conserved region will form stem structures that correspond to helices 15 to 18 of theC. elegans structural model. The sequence alignment program PILEUP was used to perform a cluster analysis (unweighted pair group method using arthmetic averages, UPGMA) on the sequences. This analysis revealed that the helices allow for the classification of the turbellarians at the level of families and above, whereas if the D3 expansion segment itself was included in the analysis, intrageneric and intraspecific groupings could be established.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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