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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-01-07
    Description: A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of 〉100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating approximately 10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944098/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944098/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okada, Yukinori -- Wu, Di -- Trynka, Gosia -- Raj, Towfique -- Terao, Chikashi -- Ikari, Katsunori -- Kochi, Yuta -- Ohmura, Koichiro -- Suzuki, Akari -- Yoshida, Shinji -- Graham, Robert R -- Manoharan, Arun -- Ortmann, Ward -- Bhangale, Tushar -- Denny, Joshua C -- Carroll, Robert J -- Eyler, Anne E -- Greenberg, Jeffrey D -- Kremer, Joel M -- Pappas, Dimitrios A -- Jiang, Lei -- Yin, Jian -- Ye, Lingying -- Su, Ding-Feng -- Yang, Jian -- Xie, Gang -- Keystone, Ed -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Esko, Tonu -- Metspalu, Andres -- Zhou, Xuezhong -- Gupta, Namrata -- Mirel, Daniel -- Stahl, Eli A -- Diogo, Dorothee -- Cui, Jing -- Liao, Katherine -- Guo, Michael H -- Myouzen, Keiko -- Kawaguchi, Takahisa -- Coenen, Marieke J H -- van Riel, Piet L C M -- van de Laar, Mart A F J -- Guchelaar, Henk-Jan -- Huizinga, Tom W J -- Dieude, Philippe -- Mariette, Xavier -- Bridges, S Louis Jr -- Zhernakova, Alexandra -- Toes, Rene E M -- Tak, Paul P -- Miceli-Richard, Corinne -- Bang, So-Young -- Lee, Hye-Soon -- Martin, Javier -- Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A -- Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis -- Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt -- Arlestig, Lisbeth -- Choi, Hyon K -- Kamatani, Yoichiro -- Galan, Pilar -- Lathrop, Mark -- RACI consortium -- GARNET consortium -- Eyre, Steve -- Bowes, John -- Barton, Anne -- de Vries, Niek -- Moreland, Larry W -- Criswell, Lindsey A -- Karlson, Elizabeth W -- Taniguchi, Atsuo -- Yamada, Ryo -- Kubo, Michiaki -- Liu, Jun S -- Bae, Sang-Cheol -- Worthington, Jane -- Padyukov, Leonid -- Klareskog, Lars -- Gregersen, Peter K -- Raychaudhuri, Soumya -- Stranger, Barbara E -- De Jager, Philip L -- Franke, Lude -- Visscher, Peter M -- Brown, Matthew A -- Yamanaka, Hisashi -- Mimori, Tsuneyo -- Takahashi, Atsushi -- Xu, Huji -- Behrens, Timothy W -- Siminovitch, Katherine A -- Momohara, Shigeki -- Matsuda, Fumihiko -- Yamamoto, Kazuhiko -- Plenge, Robert M -- 20385/Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- 79321/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- K08-KAR055688A/PHS HHS/ -- K24 AR052403/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- P60 AR047785/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR056768/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR057108/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR059648/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR063759/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR056291/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR056768/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR057108/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR059648/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR065944/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AR063759-01A1/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R21 AR056042/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- T15 LM007450/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM092691/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-GM092691/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 HL065962/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 20;506(7488):376-81. doi: 10.1038/nature12873. Epub 2013 Dec 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. [5] Centre for Cancer Research, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia. ; 1] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Institute for the Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. [2] Department of Rheumatology and Clinical immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo 162-0054, Japan. ; Laboratory for Autoimmune Diseases, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Rheumatology and Clinical immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Immunology Biomarkers Group, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; 1] Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. [2] Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; New York University Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, New York 10003, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Albany Medical Center and The Center for Rheumatology, Albany, New York 12206, USA. ; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, New York, Presbyterian Hospital, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China. ; Department of Pharmacology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; 1] University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. [2] Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; 1] Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. [2] Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. [3] Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 2J7, Canada. ; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9700 RB, the Netherlands. ; 1] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [3] Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; The Department of Psychiatry at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6500 HB, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6500 HB, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Arthritis Center Twente, University Twente & Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede 7500 AE, the Netherlands. ; Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; 1] Service de Rhumatologie et INSERM U699 Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, Paris 75018, France. [2] Universite Paris 7-Diderot, Paris 75013, France. ; Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) U1012, Universite Paris-Sud, Rhumatologie, Hopitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Le Kremlin Bicetre 94275, France. ; Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9700 RB, the Netherlands. [2] Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; 1] AMC/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands. [2] GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage SG1 2NY, UK. [3] University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK. ; Department of Rheumatology, Hanyang University Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Seoul 133-792, South Korea. ; Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez-Neyra, CSIC, Granada 18100, Spain. ; Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, IFIMAV, Santander 39008, Spain. ; Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid 28040, Spain. ; 1] Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. [2] Department of Rheumatology, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. ; 1] Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02115, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Section of Rheumatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [3] Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH), Paris 75010, France. ; Universite Paris 13 Sorbonne Paris Cite, UREN (Nutritional Epidemiology Research Unit), Inserm (U557), Inra (U1125), Cnam, Bobigny 93017, France. ; McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0G1 Canada. ; 1] Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. [2] National Institute for Health Research, Manchester Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Central Manchester University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology & Department of Genome Analysis, Academic Medical Center/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands. ; Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94117, USA. ; Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Unit of Statistical Genetics, Center for Genomic Medicine Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Laboratory for Genotyping Development, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden. ; The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] NIHR Manchester Musculoskeletal Biomedical, Research Unit, Central Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; 1] Section of Genetic Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. [2] Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. [2] Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) program, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. [3] Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) Unite U852, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; 1] Laboratory for Autoimmune Diseases, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. [2] Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390342" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*drug therapy/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Computational Biology ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Repositioning ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: Autoantibodies target the RNA binding protein Ro60 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjogren's syndrome. However, it is unclear whether Ro60 and its associated RNAs contribute to disease pathogenesis. We catalogued the Ro60-associated RNAs in human cell lines and found that among other RNAs, Ro60 bound an RNA motif derived from endogenous Alu retroelements. Alu transcripts were induced by type I interferon and stimulated proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood cells. Ro60 deletion resulted in enhanced expression of Alu RNAs and interferon-regulated genes. Anti-Ro60-positive SLE immune complexes contained Alu RNAs, and Alu transcripts were up-regulated in SLE whole blood samples relative to controls. These findings establish a link among the lupus autoantigen Ro60, Alu retroelements, and type I interferon.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4691329/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4691329/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hung, T -- Pratt, G A -- Sundararaman, B -- Townsend, M J -- Chaivorapol, C -- Bhangale, T -- Graham, R R -- Ortmann, W -- Criswell, L A -- Yeo, G W -- Behrens, T W -- HG004659/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG007005/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- NS075449/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084317/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004659/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS075449/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 23;350(6259):455-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7442. Epub 2015 Sep 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. behrens.tim@gene.com hungt2@gene.com geneyeo@ucsd.edu. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Institute for Genomic Medicine, Stem Cell Program, University of California at San Diego, Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, 2880 Torrey Pines Scenic Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. ; Rosalind Russell/Ephraim P. Engleman Rheumatology Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Institute for Genomic Medicine, Stem Cell Program, University of California at San Diego, Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, 2880 Torrey Pines Scenic Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Genome Institute of Singapore and Molecular Engineering Laboratory, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore. behrens.tim@gene.com hungt2@gene.com geneyeo@ucsd.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26382853" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1,2,3-Triazabutadiene 3a-j existieren in zwei isolierbaren isomeren Formen, die aufgrund ihrer spektroskopischen und chemischen Eigenschaften als cis-trans-Isomere charakterisiert werden. Die Isomeren sind photochemisch ineinander umwandelbar, thermisch gelingt die Isomerisierung der cis- zur trans-Form nur bei den Verbindungen 3a-g. Die Quantenausbeuten von Hin- und Rückreaktion werden mitgeteilt.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photochemical Primary Processes of Xanthene Dyes. III. Investigations of the Influence of Cationic Micelles on the Photoredox Processes of Selenopyronine by Flash ExcitationCationic micelles have no influence on the decay of the triplet state of selenopyronine (3F+). The products of photoredox reactions 3F+ + 3F+ (F+) → F· + F++· and 3F+ + DABCO → F· + DABCO+· live longer in the presence of the cationic micelles. The reason for the change of the lifetime is a separation of the photoredox products by micelles. F. is stored in the interior of the micelles. The positively charged F++· and DABCO+· are repelled from the micelles and the electron back transfer is hindered.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photochemical Primary Processes of Xanthene Dyes. VIII. Influence of Mixed Micelles on the Photochemical Primary Processes of Selenopyronine and Erythrosine and the Sensitized Photolysis of Diazonium SaltsThe influence of the nonionic detergent dodecyltriglycol (DTG) on the escape rate of dye ions from cationic and anionic micelles is investigated. The rate constant of the escape of selenopyronine ions (Sp⊕) from mixed micelles of sodium dodecylsulfate (NDS) and DTG (1:1) (kA ≍ 3,2 · 104 s-1) is, as a result of the lower charge density, higher by the factor 10 than that from clean NDS-micelles (kA ≍; 2,8 · 103 s-1). Erythrosine ions (Et2⊖) are tightly fixed to cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB)-micelles (kA ≍; 0,25 · 103 s-1) and to mixed micelles of CTAB and DTG (1:1). This may be a result of the twofold negative charge of the erythrosine ions. Properties of the mixed micelles (polarity, average aggregation numbers) are determined by using the dyes and pyrene as probes. The sensitized photolysis of diazonium salts by electron transfer from photoexited selenopyronine under aerobic conditions is more effective by a factor of 3-5 in the presence of anionic micelles than when in a water solution.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1,2,3-Triazabutadienes. XX. Investigations of the Photochemical Z-E-Isomerization, Photolysis, Protonation and Acidic Cleavage of 1-Aryl-3-3-methylbenzthiazolinyliden-(2)-triazenes in Micellar SolutionsThe E-isomers of the 1-Aryl-3-[3-methylbenzthiazolinyliden-(2)]-triazenes are soluble in aqueous micellar solutions of sodium dodecylsulfate (NDS) and cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB). They are fixed in the Stern region of the micelles. The Z-isomers decompose in aqueous micellar solutions by acidic cleavage. They can be stabilized by the use of alkaline buffer solutions. The concentration of protons is higher by the factor 103 in the Stern region of NDS-micelles than in the Stern region of CTAB-micelles. This difference is explained by electrostatic attraction and repulsion between the protons and the micelles. The quantum yields of the photochemical isomerization in micellar solutions and in organic solvents are the same. Water soluble ionic dyes with relatively low triplet energies sensitize the photoisomerization in micellar solutions and the photostationary state is on the side of the E-isomer.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1,2,3-Triazabutadienes. VII. Investigation of the Mechanism of the Photochemical cis-trans-Isomerization of 1-Aryl-3-[3-methyl-benzthiazolinyliden-(2)]-triazenesThe direct photoisomerizations of substituted triazabutadienes are investigated. The quantum yields do not considerably depend on substituents in the phenyl-group of triazabutadienes, on the wavelength of irradiation light and on the solvent. The quantum yields of the cis→trans-transformation are always higher than the quantum yields of the back reaction. The sums of quantum yields approximate 1. At low temperatures the quantum yields of photoisomerization become smaller in a significant way. With flash photolysis it is not possible to prove triplet state of triazabutadienes. Triplet quenchers have no influence on photoisomerization. The mechanism of the photochemical cis-trans-isomerization of triazabutadienes is discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photochemical Primary Processes of Xanthene Dyes. I. Investigations of the Primary Processes of Selenopyronine by Flash ExcitationThe triplet-state of selenopyronine absorbs light in the whole investigated spectral range (λmax = 400 nm, 480 nm, 690 nm). As results of the bimolecular triplet decay a half-reduced (λmax = 430 nm) and a half-oxidized (λmax = 475 nm) form of the dye are observed. p-Benzoquinone quenches the triplet-state (k7 = 1,5 · 109 l/mol s) and the results are the half-oxidized form and the p-benzosemiquinone ion. For these two products different decay processes exist. The reducing agents DABCO, EDTA and Hydroquinone also quench the triplet state (k10 = 1,2 · 106 l/mol s, k11 = 1,0 · 106 l/mol s, k12 = 1,0 · 109 l/mol s) and as result the half-reduced form is observed. Measurements with thiopyronine give analogous results, which are in good agreement with investigations published in the literature.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Naturwissenschaften 24 (1936), S. 646-648 
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1,2,3-Triazabutadienes. XXII. Photochemistry of 1-(Carbmethoxy-aryl)- and 1-(Carboxy-aryl)-3-(3-alkyl-benzthiazolinyliden-(2))-triazenes as potential CEL-dyes1-(Carbmethoxy-aryl)-3-(3-alkyl-benzthiazolinyliden-(2))-triazenes (ester-triazenes) (1) were synthesized by coupling of substituted 3-alkyl-2-imino-benzthiazolines-(1,3) with 2-, 3- and 4-carbmethoxy-benzenediazonium salts. The Z-isomers obtained can be transformed into the E-isomers 2 photochemically or by heating. In the presence of acids the E-ester-triazenes are protonated. From the E-ester-triazenes the potassium-salts (4) can be produced by alkaline ester hydrolysis. With hydrochloric acid the E-triazene-potassium salts (4) can be transformed into the protonated (at the N(1)-Atom) E-acid-triazenes (5). Their photochemical properties are identical with those of the protonated E-ester-triazenes (3). The 1-(carboxy-aryl)-3-(3-alkyl-benzthiazolinyliden-(2))-triazenes (E-acid-triazenes) (6) can be obtained from the protonated derivates by deprotonation in the presence of water. The photochemical behaviour of the E-acid-triazenes (6) and of the E-triazene-potassium-salts (4) depends on the position of the carboxy-group (2-position: photolysis, 3- and 4-position: photoisomerization). The uv/vis-spectroscopical and photochemical properties of the triazene-derivates in solution and in polymeric layers are discussed.
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