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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: The earliest history of the Moon is poorly preserved in the surface geologic record due to the high flux of impactors, but aspects of that history may be preserved in subsurface structures. Application of gravity gradiometry to observations by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission results in the identification of a population of linear gravity anomalies with lengths of hundreds of kilometers. Inversion of the gravity anomalies indicates elongated positive-density anomalies that are interpreted to be ancient vertical tabular intrusions or dikes formed by magmatism in combination with extension of the lithosphere. Crosscutting relationships support a pre-Nectarian to Nectarian age, preceding the end of the heavy bombardment of the Moon. The distribution, orientation, and dimensions of the intrusions indicate a globally isotropic extensional stress state arising from an increase in the Moon's radius by 0.6 to 4.9 kilometers early in lunar history, consistent with predictions of thermal models.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C -- Asmar, Sami W -- Head, James W 3rd -- Kiefer, Walter S -- Konopliv, Alexander S -- Lemoine, Frank G -- Matsuyama, Isamu -- Mazarico, Erwan -- McGovern, Patrick J -- Melosh, H Jay -- Neumann, Gregory A -- Nimmo, Francis -- Phillips, Roger J -- Smith, David E -- Solomon, Sean C -- Taylor, G Jeffrey -- Wieczorek, Mark A -- Williams, James G -- Zuber, Maria T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 8;339(6120):675-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1231753. Epub 2012 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geophysics and Center for Space Resources, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA. jcahanna@mines.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23223393" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: The Procellarum region is a broad area on the nearside of the Moon that is characterized by low elevations, thin crust, and high surface concentrations of the heat-producing elements uranium, thorium, and potassium. The region has been interpreted as an ancient impact basin approximately 3,200 kilometres in diameter, although supporting evidence at the surface would have been largely obscured as a result of the great antiquity and poor preservation of any diagnostic features. Here we use data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission to examine the subsurface structure of Procellarum. The Bouguer gravity anomalies and gravity gradients reveal a pattern of narrow linear anomalies that border Procellarum and are interpreted to be the frozen remnants of lava-filled rifts and the underlying feeder dykes that served as the magma plumbing system for much of the nearside mare volcanism. The discontinuous surface structures that were earlier interpreted as remnants of an impact basin rim are shown in GRAIL data to be a part of this continuous set of border structures in a quasi-rectangular pattern with angular intersections, contrary to the expected circular or elliptical shape of an impact basin. The spatial pattern of magmatic-tectonic structures bounding Procellarum is consistent with their formation in response to thermal stresses produced by the differential cooling of the province relative to its surroundings, coupled with magmatic activity driven by the greater-than-average heat flux in the region.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C -- Besserer, Jonathan -- Head, James W 3rd -- Howett, Carly J A -- Kiefer, Walter S -- Lucey, Paul J -- McGovern, Patrick J -- Melosh, H Jay -- Neumann, Gregory A -- Phillips, Roger J -- Schenk, Paul M -- Smith, David E -- Solomon, Sean C -- Zuber, Maria T -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 2;514(7520):68-71. doi: 10.1038/nature13697.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geophysics and Center for Space Resources, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA. ; Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. ; Planetary Science Directorate, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado 80302, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas 77058, USA. ; Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA. ; Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA. ; Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307, USA. ; 1] Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20015, USA [2] Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279919" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: High-resolution gravity data obtained from the dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft show that the bulk density of the Moon's highlands crust is 2550 kilograms per cubic meter, substantially lower than generally assumed. When combined with remote sensing and sample data, this density implies an average crustal porosity of 12% to depths of at least a few kilometers. Lateral variations in crustal porosity correlate with the largest impact basins, whereas lateral variations in crustal density correlate with crustal composition. The low-bulk crustal density allows construction of a global crustal thickness model that satisfies the Apollo seismic constraints, and with an average crustal thickness between 34 and 43 kilometers, the bulk refractory element composition of the Moon is not required to be enriched with respect to that of Earth.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wieczorek, Mark A -- Neumann, Gregory A -- Nimmo, Francis -- Kiefer, Walter S -- Taylor, G Jeffrey -- Melosh, H Jay -- Phillips, Roger J -- Solomon, Sean C -- Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C -- Asmar, Sami W -- Konopliv, Alexander S -- Lemoine, Frank G -- Smith, David E -- Watkins, Michael M -- Williams, James G -- Zuber, Maria T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 8;339(6120):671-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1231530. Epub 2012 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Universite Paris Diderot, Case 7071, Lamarck A, 5, rue Thomas Mann, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France. wieczor@ipgp.fr〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23223394" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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