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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-07-22
    Description: Peptidoglycan is the major structural constituent of the bacterial cell wall, forming a meshwork outside the cytoplasmic membrane that maintains cell shape and prevents lysis. In Gram-negative bacteria, peptidoglycan is located in the periplasm, where it is protected from exogenous lytic enzymes by the outer membrane. Here we show that the type VI secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa breaches this barrier to deliver two effector proteins, Tse1 and Tse3, to the periplasm of recipient cells. In this compartment, the effectors hydrolyse peptidoglycan, thereby providing a fitness advantage for P. aeruginosa cells in competition with other bacteria. To protect itself from lysis by Tse1 and Tse3, P. aeruginosa uses specific periplasmically localized immunity proteins. The requirement for these immunity proteins depends on intercellular self-intoxication through an active type VI secretion system, indicating a mechanism for export whereby effectors do not access donor cell periplasm in transit.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146020/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146020/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Russell, Alistair B -- Hood, Rachel D -- Bui, Nhat Khai -- LeRoux, Michele -- Vollmer, Waldemar -- Mougous, Joseph D -- R01 AI080609/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI080609-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jul 20;475(7356):343-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10244.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21776080" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amidohydrolases/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism/secretion ; *Bacterial Secretion Systems ; Bacterial Toxins/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; *Bacteriolysis ; Gram-Negative Bacteria/*cytology/*metabolism ; Hydrolysis ; *Microbial Interactions ; Muramidase/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Peptidoglycan/metabolism ; Periplasm/metabolism ; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology/genetics/growth & development/*metabolism ; Pseudomonas putida/growth & development/metabolism ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-12-04
    Description: Horizontal gene transfer allows organisms to rapidly acquire adaptive traits. Although documented instances of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes remain rare, bacteria represent a rich source of new functions potentially available for co-option. One benefit that genes of bacterial origin could provide to eukaryotes is the capacity to produce antibacterials, which have evolved in prokaryotes as the result of eons of interbacterial competition. The type VI secretion amidase effector (Tae) proteins are potent bacteriocidal enzymes that degrade the cell wall when delivered into competing bacterial cells by the type VI secretion system. Here we show that tae genes have been transferred to eukaryotes on at least six occasions, and that the resulting domesticated amidase effector (dae) genes have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years through purifying selection. We show that the dae genes acquired eukaryotic secretion signals, are expressed within recipient organisms, and encode active antibacterial toxins that possess substrate specificity matching extant Tae proteins of the same lineage. Finally, we show that a dae gene in the deer tick Ixodes scapularis limits proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease. Our work demonstrates that a family of horizontally acquired toxins honed to mediate interbacterial antagonism confers previously undescribed antibacterial capacity to eukaryotes. We speculate that the selective pressure imposed by competition between bacteria has produced a reservoir of genes encoding diverse antimicrobial functions that are tailored for co-option by eukaryotic innate immune systems.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4713192/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4713192/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chou, Seemay -- Daugherty, Matthew D -- Peterson, S Brook -- Biboy, Jacob -- Yang, Youyun -- Jutras, Brandon L -- Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K -- Ferrin, Michael A -- Harding, Brittany N -- Jacobs-Wagner, Christine -- Yang, X Frank -- Vollmer, Waldemar -- Malik, Harmit S -- Mougous, Joseph D -- AI080609/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI083640/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- BB/I020012/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 AI080609/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI083640/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 5;518(7537):98-101. doi: 10.1038/nature13965. Epub 2014 Nov 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] Microbial Sciences Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; 1] Microbial Sciences Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA [3] Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA [4] Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25470067" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amidohydrolases/genetics/metabolism/secretion ; Animals ; Bacteria/cytology/*enzymology/*genetics/immunology ; Bacterial Secretion Systems ; Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/metabolism ; Borrelia burgdorferi/cytology/growth & development/immunology ; Cell Wall/metabolism ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Eukaryota/*genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal/*genetics ; Genes, Bacterial/*genetics ; *Immunity, Innate/genetics ; Ixodes/genetics/immunology/metabolism/microbiology ; Phylogeny ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Infektiologie Update 2018; 26. Jahrestagung der Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft für Chemotherapie (PEG); 20181004-20181006; Wien; DOC18peg17 /20181008/
    Publication Date: 2018-10-09
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Chirurg 68 (1997), S. 742-743 
    ISSN: 1433-0385
    Keywords: Key words: Wound retractor ; Technical details ; Indications. ; Schlüsselwörter: Wundhakenhalter ; technische Einzelheiten ; Indikationen.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung. Mit dem „Vollmer-Haken“ wird eine neue, am Operationstisch zu fixierende Bauchsperre vorgestellt. Sie erlaubt, die Zugkraft sowohl bei Ober- als auch bei Unterbaucheingriffen auf den Wundrand zu übertragen. Dadurch wird – in der Praxis bereits bewährt – eine optimale Sicht nach subdiaphragmal als auch in das kleine Becken möglich.
    Notes: Summary. Here, we present the so-called “Vollmer retractor”, which can be fixed on to the operating table. It allows an optimal transference of the traction force on to the border of the wound, both in upper and lower abdominal interventions. In this way, as shown by our recent experience, we gain an optimal view of the subdiaphragmatic area and into the small pelvis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 34.50.Fa ; 32.30.Rj ; 32.70.Jz
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The energy dependence of the alignment of42Mo,47AgL 3 shell and79Au,90ThM 3 shell following impact ionization by ions with atomic numberZ 1=2 (helium) toZ 1=18 (argon) was studied with a 5 in Johansson crystal spectrometer analyzing the degree of X-ray polarization. Experimental information about the amount of multiple ionization was obtained. The observed small negative alignment is concerned to be due to dealignment by couplings between the created vacancies. Large positive values of the alignment parameter as previously reported for the79AuL 3 shell is slow heavy ion collisions were not observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background The composition of the intestinal flora in young children, if unfavourable, may increase the susceptibility to allergic disorders. Beneficial intestinal microbes originate from the maternal vaginal tract and thus are more likely to be transferred during vaginal births than during Caesarean sections (C-sections).Objective To determine whether children born by C-section have a different risk of allergic disorders compared with those delivered vaginally. We also tested the hypothesis that the risk of allergic disorders is highest for children born after ‘repeat C-sections’.Methods A retrospective cohort study of 8953 children aged 3–10 years. Children diagnosed with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR), asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD), or food allergies were identified from the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region electronic records. The children's sex, birth weight, birth order, postnatal exposure to antibiotics as well as the mothers' age, ethnicity, education, marital status, smoking status during pregnancy, and use of asthma or hayfever medications were identified through the mothers' medical records or through the Oregon Birth Registry.Results The risk of being diagnosed with AR was significantly higher in the children born by C-section than in those delivered vaginally: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.37%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14–1.63. Delivery by C-section was also associated with the subsequent diagnosis of asthma (OR=1.24%, 95% CI=1.01–1.53); this association was gender specific, with a positive association restricted to girls (OR for asthma in girls: OR=1.53%, 95% CI=1.11–2.10; in boys: OR=1.08%, 95% CI=0.81–1.43). There was no significant association between mode of delivery and AD.If children born in a ‘repeat C-section’ were considered separately the risk of being diagnosed with AR increased further (OR=1.78%, 95% CI=1.34–2.37). The same increase was noted for asthma in girls (OR=1.83%, 95% CI=1.13–2.97) but not in boys.Conclusion Caesarean sections may be associated with an increased risk of developing AR in childhood.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 34.50.Fa ; 32.30.Rj ; 07.85. + n
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The alignment of theM 3 subshell of gold following proton impact ionization was studied with projectile energies in the range from 160 keV up to 5MeV. The experiments were performed by measuring the polarization of emittedM X-rays be means of a 5 in. Johansson crystal spectrometer. A good agreement of the experimental data and the results of theoretical SCA calculations was found.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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