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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-05-09
    Description: In core-collapse supernovae, titanium-44 ((44)Ti) is produced in the innermost ejecta, in the layer of material directly on top of the newly formed compact object. As such, it provides a direct probe of the supernova engine. Observations of supernova 1987A (SN1987A) have resolved the 67.87- and 78.32-kilo-electron volt emission lines from decay of (44)Ti produced in the supernova explosion. These lines are narrow and redshifted with a Doppler velocity of ~700 kilometers per second, direct evidence of large-scale asymmetry in the explosion.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boggs, S E -- Harrison, F A -- Miyasaka, H -- Grefenstette, B W -- Zoglauer, A -- Fryer, C L -- Reynolds, S P -- Alexander, D M -- An, H -- Barret, D -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Forster, K -- Giommi, P -- Hailey, C J -- Hornstrup, A -- Kitaguchi, T -- Koglin, J E -- Madsen, K K -- Mao, P H -- Mori, K -- Perri, M -- Pivovaroff, M J -- Puccetti, S -- Rana, V -- Stern, D -- Westergaard, N J -- Zhang, W W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):670-1. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa2259.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. boggs@berkeley.edu. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. ; Physics Department, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. ; Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. ; Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada. ; Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse, France. CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France. ; DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. ; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc I-00133, Roma, Italy. ; Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. ; RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan. ; Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. ; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc I-00133, Roma, Italy. INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio, Italy. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25954004" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: Broad X-ray emission lines from neutral and partially ionized iron observed in active galaxies have been interpreted as fluorescence produced by the reflection of hard X-rays off the inner edge of an accretion disk. In this model, line broadening and distortion result from rapid rotation and relativistic effects near the black hole, the line shape being sensitive to its spin. Alternative models in which the distortions result from absorption by intervening structures provide an equally good description of the data, and there has been no general agreement on which is correct. Recent claims that the black hole (2 x 10(6) solar masses) at the centre of the galaxy NGC 1365 is rotating at close to its maximum possible speed rest on the assumption of relativistic reflection. Here we report X-ray observations of NGC 1365 that reveal the relativistic disk features through broadened Fe-line emission and an associated Compton scattering excess of 10-30 kiloelectronvolts. Using temporal and spectral analyses, we disentangle continuum changes due to time-variable absorption from reflection, which we find arises from a region within 2.5 gravitational radii of the rapidly spinning black hole. Absorption-dominated models that do not include relativistic disk reflection can be ruled out both statistically and on physical grounds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Risaliti, G -- Harrison, F A -- Madsen, K K -- Walton, D J -- Boggs, S E -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Grefenstette, B W -- Hailey, C J -- Nardini, E -- Stern, Daniel -- Zhang, W W -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 28;494(7438):449-51. doi: 10.1038/nature11938.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉INAF-Osservatoria Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy. risaliti@arcetri.astro.it〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23446416" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Asymmetry is required by most numerical simulations of stellar core-collapse explosions, but the form it takes differs significantly among models. The spatial distribution of radioactive (44)Ti, synthesized in an exploding star near the boundary between material falling back onto the collapsing core and that ejected into the surrounding medium, directly probes the explosion asymmetries. Cassiopeia A is a young, nearby, core-collapse remnant from which (44)Ti emission has previously been detected but not imaged. Asymmetries in the explosion have been indirectly inferred from a high ratio of observed (44)Ti emission to estimated (56)Ni emission, from optical light echoes, and from jet-like features seen in the X-ray and optical ejecta. Here we report spatial maps and spectral properties of the (44)Ti in Cassiopeia A. This may explain the unexpected lack of correlation between the (44)Ti and iron X-ray emission, the latter being visible only in shock-heated material. The observed spatial distribution rules out symmetric explosions even with a high level of convective mixing, as well as highly asymmetric bipolar explosions resulting from a fast-rotating progenitor. Instead, these observations provide strong evidence for the development of low-mode convective instabilities in core-collapse supernovae.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grefenstette, B W -- Harrison, F A -- Boggs, S E -- Reynolds, S P -- Fryer, C L -- Madsen, K K -- Wik, D R -- Zoglauer, A -- Ellinger, C I -- Alexander, D M -- An, H -- Barret, D -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Forster, K -- Giommi, P -- Hailey, C J -- Hornstrup, A -- Kaspi, V M -- Kitaguchi, T -- Koglin, J E -- Mao, P H -- Miyasaka, H -- Mori, K -- Perri, M -- Pivovaroff, M J -- Puccetti, S -- Rana, V -- Stern, D -- Westergaard, N J -- Zhang, W W -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 20;506(7488):339-42. doi: 10.1038/nature12997.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA. ; CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019, USA. ; Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. ; Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada. ; 1] Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France [2] CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 9 Avenue colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France. ; DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; 1] Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA. ; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc, I-00133 Roma, Italy. ; Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; RIKEN, Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan. ; Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc, I-00133 Roma, Italy [2] INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio, Italy. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553239" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: The majority of ultraluminous X-ray sources are point sources that are spatially offset from the nuclei of nearby galaxies and whose X-ray luminosities exceed the theoretical maximum for spherical infall (the Eddington limit) onto stellar-mass black holes. Their X-ray luminosities in the 0.5-10 kiloelectronvolt energy band range from 10(39) to 10(41) ergs per second. Because higher masses imply less extreme ratios of the luminosity to the isotropic Eddington limit, theoretical models have focused on black hole rather than neutron star systems. The most challenging sources to explain are those at the luminous end of the range (more than 10(40) ergs per second), which require black hole masses of 50-100 times the solar value or significant departures from the standard thin disk accretion that powers bright Galactic X-ray binaries, or both. Here we report broadband X-ray observations of the nuclear region of the galaxy M82 that reveal pulsations with an average period of 1.37 seconds and a 2.5-day sinusoidal modulation. The pulsations result from the rotation of a magnetized neutron star, and the modulation arises from its binary orbit. The pulsed flux alone corresponds to an X-ray luminosity in the 3-30 kiloelectronvolt range of 4.9 x 10(39) ergs per second. The pulsating source is spatially coincident with a variable source that can reach an X-ray luminosity in the 0.3-10 kiloelectronvolt range of 1.8 x 10(40) ergs per second. This association implies a luminosity of about 100 times the Eddington limit for a 1.4-solar-mass object, or more than ten times brighter than any known accreting pulsar. This implies that neutron stars may not be rare in the ultraluminous X-ray population, and it challenges physical models for the accretion of matter onto magnetized compact objects.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bachetti, M -- Harrison, F A -- Walton, D J -- Grefenstette, B W -- Chakrabarty, D -- Furst, F -- Barret, D -- Beloborodov, A -- Boggs, S E -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Fabian, A C -- Hailey, C J -- Hornschemeier, A -- Kaspi, V -- Kulkarni, S R -- Maccarone, T -- Miller, J M -- Rana, V -- Stern, D -- Tendulkar, S P -- Tomsick, J -- Webb, N A -- Zhang, W W -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):202-4. doi: 10.1038/nature13791.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 9, Avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France [2] CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 9, Avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France. ; Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Physics Department, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA. ; Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. ; Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA. ; Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada. ; Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1042, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25297433" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-05-01
    Description: The Galactic Centre hosts a puzzling stellar population in its inner few parsecs, with a high abundance of surprisingly young, relatively massive stars bound within the deep potential well of the central supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A* (ref. 1). Previous studies suggest that the population of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10 kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 x 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt range. This emission is more sharply peaked towards the Galactic Centre than is the surface brightness of the soft-X-ray population. This could indicate a significantly more massive population of accreting white dwarfs, large populations of low-mass X-ray binaries or millisecond pulsars, or particle outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Perez, Kerstin -- Hailey, Charles J -- Bauer, Franz E -- Krivonos, Roman A -- Mori, Kaya -- Baganoff, Frederick K -- Barriere, Nicolas M -- Boggs, Steven E -- Christensen, Finn E -- Craig, William W -- Grefenstette, Brian W -- Grindlay, Jonathan E -- Harrison, Fiona A -- Hong, Jaesub -- Madsen, Kristin K -- Nynka, Melania -- Stern, Daniel -- Tomsick, John A -- Wik, Daniel R -- Zhang, Shuo -- Zhang, William W -- Zoglauer, Andreas -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 30;520(7549):646-9. doi: 10.1038/nature14353.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, Room 1027, New York, New York 10027, USA [2] Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, KINSC L109, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041, USA. ; Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, Room 1027, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; 1] Instituto de Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22, Chile [2] Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago, Chile [3] Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, Colorado 80301, USA. ; Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-555, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; 1] Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 290-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-83, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-221, California 91109, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Code 662, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25925477" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nardini, E -- Reeves, J N -- Gofford, J -- Harrison, F A -- Risaliti, G -- Braito, V -- Costa, M T -- Matzeu, G A -- Walton, D J -- Behar, E -- Boggs, S E -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Hailey, C J -- Matt, G -- Miller, J M -- O'Brien, P T -- Stern, D -- Turner, T J -- Ward, M J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):860-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1259202.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. e.nardini@keele.ac.uk. ; Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze, Italy. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (LC), Italy. ; Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel. ; Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Danmarks Tekniske Universitet Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. ; Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. ; Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma, Italy. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Physics Department, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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