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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-07-24
    Description: Bacterial pathogens have evolved specific effector proteins that, by interfacing with host kinase signalling pathways, provide a mechanism to evade immune responses during infection. Although these effectors contribute to pathogen virulence, we realized that they might also serve as valuable synthetic biology reagents for engineering cellular behaviour. Here we exploit two effector proteins, the Shigella flexneri OspF protein and Yersinia pestis YopH protein, to rewire kinase-mediated responses systematically both in yeast and mammalian immune cells. Bacterial effector proteins can be directed to inhibit specific mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways selectively in yeast by artificially targeting them to pathway-specific complexes. Moreover, we show that unique properties of the effectors generate new pathway behaviours: OspF, which irreversibly inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinases, was used to construct a synthetic feedback circuit that shows novel frequency-dependent input filtering. Finally, we show that effectors can be used in T cells, either as feedback modulators to tune the T-cell response amplitude precisely, or as an inducible pause switch that can temporarily disable T-cell activation. These studies demonstrate how pathogens could provide a rich toolkit of parts to engineer cells for therapeutic or biotechnological applications.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3422413/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3422413/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wei, Ping -- Wong, Wilson W -- Park, Jason S -- Corcoran, Ethan E -- Peisajovich, Sergio G -- Onuffer, James J -- Weiss, Arthur -- Lim, Wendell A -- P50 GM081879/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50GM081879/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- PN2 EY016546/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- PN2EY016546/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM055040/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM055040/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM062583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 16;488(7411):384-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11259.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22820255" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Biotechnology/*methods ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Feedback, Physiological ; Genetic Engineering/*methods ; Humans ; Interleukin-2/immunology ; Jurkat Cells ; Lymphocyte Activation/genetics ; *MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Osmolar Concentration ; Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*enzymology/genetics/metabolism ; Shigella flexneri/genetics/metabolism/pathogenicity ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/*enzymology/immunology/metabolism ; Virulence Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Yersinia pestis/genetics/metabolism/pathogenicity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-04-02
    Description: Members of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily have important functions in immunity and inflammation. Recently linear ubiquitin chains assembled by a complex containing HOIL-1 and HOIP (also known as RBCK1 and RNF31, respectively) were implicated in TNF signalling, yet their relevance in vivo remained uncertain. Here we identify SHARPIN as a third component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex, recruited to the CD40 and TNF receptor signalling complexes together with its other constituents, HOIL-1 and HOIP. Mass spectrometry of TNF signalling complexes revealed RIP1 (also known as RIPK1) and NEMO (also known as IKKgamma or IKBKG) to be linearly ubiquitinated. Mutation of the Sharpin gene (Sharpin(cpdm/cpdm)) causes chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm) characterized by inflammatory skin lesions and defective lymphoid organogenesis. Gene induction by TNF, CD40 ligand and interleukin-1beta was attenuated in cpdm-derived cells which were rendered sensitive to TNF-induced death. Importantly, Tnf gene deficiency prevented skin lesions in cpdm mice. We conclude that by enabling linear ubiquitination in the TNF receptor signalling complex, SHARPIN interferes with TNF-induced cell death and, thereby, prevents inflammation. Our results provide evidence for the relevance of linear ubiquitination in vivo in preventing inflammation and regulating immune signalling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gerlach, Bjorn -- Cordier, Stefanie M -- Schmukle, Anna C -- Emmerich, Christoph H -- Rieser, Eva -- Haas, Tobias L -- Webb, Andrew I -- Rickard, James A -- Anderton, Holly -- Wong, Wendy W-L -- Nachbur, Ueli -- Gangoda, Lahiru -- Warnken, Uwe -- Purcell, Anthony W -- Silke, John -- Walczak, Henning -- 10950/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 31;471(7340):591-6. doi: 10.1038/nature09816.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Tumour Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, W12 0NN London, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21455173" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CD40 Ligand/metabolism ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Humans ; I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism ; Immunity/*immunology ; Inflammation/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/metabolism ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry/metabolism ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Skin/cytology/immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/deficiency/genetics ; Ubiquitin/chemistry/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes/chemistry/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/chemistry/metabolism ; *Ubiquitination
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0277-5387
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Immunology 1 (1983), S. 243-271 
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 68 (1990), S. 5911-5912 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A more accurate intrinsic concentration was suggested recently. Discrepancies between using the conventional and the more accurate intrinsic concentrations on bipolar transistor modeling are assessed in this study. Our calculations show that the conventional intrinsic concentration overestimates the collector and base currents by a factor of 1.5 to 2 but affects less severely the steady-state current gain.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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