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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Paracoccus denitrificans ; Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides ; rRNA sequences ; rRNA processing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have shown that mature 50S ribosomal subunits of Paracoccus denitrificans lack intact 23S rRNA, containing instead rRNAs of 0.56 (“16S”) and 0.37 (“14S”)x106 molecular weight. Kinetic labelling studies showed these to be derived from a 1.02x106 dalton precursor, which may itself derive from a larger and very transient “23S” species. A similar pattern of rRNA processing has been previously described for Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, and we have compared, by Tl oligonucleotide catalog analysis, the smaller (“14S”) fragments of P. denitrificans and R. sphaeroides 23S rRNAs. These were shown to exhibit strong sequence homology, and comparisons of 14S-derived oligonucleotides to oligonucleotides from an in vitro-generated “13S” fragment of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA suggest that P. denitrificans and R. sphaeroides 14S rRNAs arise from the 5′-terminal portions of their respective 23S precursors. Results are considered to be consistent with the claim that P. denitrificans arose, by loss of photophosphorylation, from a member of the Rhodospirillaceae.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Methanococcus jannaschii ; Thermophilic methanogenic bacteria ; Methanococcus ; Hydrothermal vent methanogen ; Deep sea methanogen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A new extremely thermophilic methane-producing bacterium was isolated from a submarine hydrothermal vent sample collected by a research team from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution using the manned submersible ALVIN. The sample was obtained from the base of a “white smoker” chimney on the East Pacific Rise at 20° 50′ N latitude and 109° 06′ W longitude at a depth of 2600 m. The isolate was a motile irregular coccus with an osmotically fragile cell wall and a complex flagellar system. In defined medium with 80% H2 and 20% CO2, the isolate had a doubling time of 26 min at 85° C. The pH range for growth was 5.2 to 7.0 with an optimum near 6.0. NaCl was required for growth with an optimum of 2 to 3% (w/v). The mol % G+C was 31%. In cell-free extracts, methane formation from methylcoenzyme M was temperature-dependent, and H2 or formate served as electron donors. Methane formation from H2 and CO2 occurred at a much lower rate. Oligonucleotide cataloging of the 16S ribosomal RNA established the isolate as a new species of the genus Methanococcus and the name Methanococcus jannaschii is proposed. The isolation of M. jannaschii from a submarine hydrothermal vent provides additional evidence for biogenic production of CH4 from these deep-sea environments.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Sulfate reduction ; Thermophile ; Hydrothermal vent ; Yellowstone Lake ; Thermodesulfovibrio yellostonii, gen. nov., sp. nov
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A thermophilic sulfate-reducing vibrio isolated from thermal vent water in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming, USA is described. The gram-negative, curved rod-shaped cells averaged 0.3 μm wide and 1.5 μm long. They were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed between 40° and 70 °C with optimal growth at 65 °C. Cultures remained viable for one year at 27 °C although spore-formation was not observed. Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite were used as electron acceptors. Sulfur, fumarate and nitrate were not reduced. In the presence of sulfate, growth was observed only with lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen plus acetate, or formate plus acetate. Pyruvate was the only compound observed to support fermentative growth. Pyruvate and lactate were oxidized to acetate. Desulfofuscidin and c-type cytochromes were present. The G+C content was 29.5 mol%. The divergence in the 16S ribosomal RNA sequences between the new isolate and Thermodesulfobacterium commune suggests that these two thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria represent different genera. These two bacteria depict a lineage that branches deeply within the Bacteria domain and which is clearly distinct from previously defined phylogenetic lines of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain YP87 is described as the type strain of the new genus and species Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii. Yellowstone Lake (Wyoming, USA) is located within one of the most tectonically active regions in the world (Klump et al. 1988; Remsen et al. 1990). Hydrothermal springs, hot gas fumaroles and elevated substrata temperatures have been observed within the lake itself (e.g., Remsen et al. 1990). Hydrothermal vent waters were reported to be anoxic, high in dissolved nutrients relative to the lake water and to have temperatures in excess of 80 °C (Klump et al. 1988; Remsen et al. 1990). Sulfate concentrations averaged 380 μM in vent waters and 80 μM in bulk lake water (Klump et al. 1988; Remsen et al. 1990). On the basis of on these physical and chemical characteristics, and the observation (e.g., Zeikus et al. 1983) that microbial sulfate reduction is prevalent in the thermal aquatic environments of Yellowstone National Park, we hypothesized that hydrothermal vent waters in Yellowstone Lake could support the growth of thermophilic sulfate reducers. Here we describe the general characteristics of a new thermophilic sulfate reducing bacterium, Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, which was isolated from hydrothermal vent water in Sedge Bay of Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming, USA. In addition, we report on the phylogenetic relationship of this new isolate with other thermophilic and mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words: Sulfate reduction – Thermophile – Hydrothermal vent – Yellowstone Lake –Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, gen. nov., sp. nov.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. A thermophilic sulfate-reducing vibrio isolated from thermal vent water in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming, USA is described. The gram-negative, curved rod-shaped cells averaged 0.3 µm wide and 1.5 µm long. They were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed between 40° and 70 °C with optimal growth at 65 °C. Cultures remained viable for one year at 27 °C although spore-formation was not observed. Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite were used as electron acceptors. Sulfur, fumarate and nitrate were not reduced. In the presence of sulfate, growth was observed only with lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen plus acetate, or formate plus acetate. Pyruvate was the only compound observed to support fermentative growth. Pyruvate and lactate were oxidized to acetate. Desulfofuscidin and c-type cytochromes were present. The G+C content was 29.5 mol%. The divergence in the 16 S ribosomal RNA sequences between the new isolate and Thermodesulfobacterium commune suggests that these two thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria represent different genera. These two bacteria depict a lineage that branches deeply within the Bacteria domain and which is clearly distinct from previously defined phylogenetic lines of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain YP87 is described as the type strain of the new genus and species Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We show that the archaebacterium Halobacterium volcanii contains two ribosomal RNA gene clusters, in which genes for individual rRNAs lie in the order 16S-23S-5S. We have cloned the 5S rRNA genes of both clusters and present sequences of the two 5S rRNA genes and their 5′ and 3′ flanking regions, as well as the sequence of H. volcanii 5S rRNA. We show that a gene for a tRNACys lies downstream from one, but not the other, 5S rRNA gene, and have obtained evidence that this tRNA gene is transcribed in vivo. We discuss regions of potential secondary structure which may be involved in transcription termination. We note regions of unexpected flanking sequence conservation both within H. volcanii 5S rRNA gene regions, and between them and the corresponding 5S rRNA gene region of H. cutirubrum (Hui and Dennis 1984).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Although higher taxa of eukaryotes, such as kingdoms and phyla, have been generally defined by macro- and micro-morphological criteria, opinions in the field of protist taxonomy vary widely, making the understanding of evolutionary relationships in this group uncertain (for reviews see refs 9-12). ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 190 (1961), S. 697-698 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IT is a generally held view that nucleic acids carry the information necessary to specify the primary structure of proteins. As there are only four kinds of nucleotides in any one kind of nucleic acid and 18-20 kinds of amino-acids in protein, it is reasonable that at least a triplet of nucleotides ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 191 (1961), S. 1196-1197 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Sufficient data are now available so that we can begin to characterize amino-acid replacements to some degree, and hopefully then begin to understand more about the nature of the underlying genetic coding. The first characteristic of amino-acid replacements to note is that replacements resemble ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 273 (1978), S. 101-101 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] DR J. A. Steitz finds it difficult to accept1 our claim that methanogenic bacteria are representative of a group of organisms, the archaebacteria, that in a genealogical sense bear no more relationship to the typical bacteria than they do to (the "cytoplasmic aspect" of) the eukaryotes2"4., Citing ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 256 (1975), S. 64-66 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Polyacrylamide gel profiles of 32P-labelled RNA from C. thermosaccharolyticum exhibit an extra band that corresponds to an RNA species of about 160 nucleotides. The new species plus the normal 5S RNA together exist in approximate unit mole ratio to the 16S and 23S rRNAs. The new species is indeed ...
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