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  • 1
    Keywords: measurement ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; VIVO ; imaging ; QUANTIFICATION ; TOOL ; NEW-YORK ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TISSUE ; TIME ; MRI ; SEQUENCE ; SIGNAL ; magnetic resonance ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ; ACQUISITION ; REQUIRES ; REGION ; REGIONS ; HEAD ; RECONSTRUCTION ; resonance imaging ; IMAGING TECHNIQUES ; image reconstruction ; BIEXPONENTIAL RELAXATION ; MR pulse sequence ; REPERFUSED MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; SODIUM ; sodium magnetic ; SPINS ; tissue viability
    Abstract: Pathological changes in tissue often manifest themselves in an altered sodium gradient between intra- and extracellular space due to a malfunctioning Na+-K+ pump, resulting in an increase in total sodium concentration in ischaemic regions. Therefore, Na-23-MRI has the potential to non-invasively differentiate viable from non-viable tissue by detecting concentration changes of intra- and extracellular sodium. As the in vivo sodium signal shows a bi-exponential T-2 decay, with a short component of less than 1 ms, the accurate quantification of the total sodium content requires imaging techniques with ultra-short echo times (TE) below 0.5 ms. A 3D-radial projection technique has been developed which allows the acquisition of ECG-triggered sodium images of the human heart with a TE of 0.4 ms. With this pulse sequence Na-23-MRI volunteer measurements of the head or the heart were performed in less than 18 min on a 1.5-T clinical scanner with an isotropic resolution of 10 mm(3). The signal to noise ratio of the radial projection technique is twofold higher than that of a Cartesian gradient echo pulse sequence (TE = 3.2 ms). Radial Na-23-MRI provides a tool for clinical studies, aiming at the differentiation of viable and non-viable tissue
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 2
    Keywords: DENDRITIC CELLS ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; KIDNEY-DISEASE ; RENAL INJURY ; MITOCHONDRIAL SUPEROXIDE ; BONE-MARROW ORIGIN ; NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME ; PODOCYTE INJURY
    Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is a growing health concern with characteristic sterile inflammation. As the underlying mechanisms of this inflammation remain poorly defined, specific therapies targeting sterile inflammation in diabetic nephropathy are lacking. Intriguingly, an association of diabetic nephropathy with inflammasome activation has recently been shown, but the pathophysiological relevance of this finding remains unknown. Within glomeruli, inflammasome activation was detected in endothelial cells and podocytes in diabetic humans and mice and in glucose-stressed glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes in vitro. Abolishing Nlrp3 or caspase-1 expression in bone marrow-derived cells fails to protect mice against diabetic nephropathy. Conversely, Nlrp3-deficient mice are protected against diabetic nephropathy despite transplantation of wild-type bone marrow. Pharmacological IL-1R antagonism prevented or even reversed diabetic nephropathy in mice. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate the Nlrp3 inflammasome in glucose or advanced glycation end product stressed podocytes. Inhibition of mitochondrial ROS prevents glomerular inflammasome activation and nephropathy in diabetic mice. Thus, mitochondrial ROS and Nlrp3-inflammasome activation in non-myeloid-derived cells aggravate diabetic nephropathy. Targeting the inflammasome may be a potential therapeutic approach to diabetic nephropathy.Kidney International advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.271.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25075770
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Renale Hg-„Stapelung“, Urinausscheidung und Filtration wurde mit Hilfe von Hg203-Mersalyl an Ratten bestimmt, durch Ureterenligatur und Drucksenkung variiert und mit mikrotopographischen Gesichtspunkten aus der Gefrierschnitt-Autoradiographie in Beziehung gebracht. Die Ergebnisse sprechen für eine Aufnahme, „Stapelung“ und „Sekretion“ von Mersalyl-Hg über die Basalmembran des gewundenen Hauptstücks der Nierenrinde mit nachfolgender Reabsorption im terminalen Hauptstück von Markstrahl und Außenstreifen. Das früher beschriebene renale Verteilungsmuster 1 würde danach durch intrarenale Quecksilber-Umlagerung in Verteilungsmuster 2 übergehen.
    Notes: Summary The renal storage, urinary secretion, and glomerular filtration of Hg was tested in rats injected with Hg203 Mersalyl. The experimental conditions were varied by clamping of the ureters and partial clamping of the aorta. The results were considered in relation to microtopographic results obtained through frozen section autoradiography. The findings seem to indicate an uptake, “storage” and “secretion” of Mersalyl-Hg via the basal membrane of the proximal convolutions in the renal cortex with a subsequent reabsorption in the terminal part of proximal tubule in the medullary ray and the outer strip of the medulla. The renal distribution pattern 1, as described in a previous paper, would therefore be transformed into distribution pattern 2 through an intrarenal Hg-shift.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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