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  • 1
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background. Recently, the acquisition by Helicobacter pylori of resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem. Therefore, nonantibiotic substances are required to diminish H. pylori-induced gastric lesions. In the present study, the effects of Cladosiphon fucoidan were examined in terms of H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin in vitro and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in vivo.Methods. The inhibitory effect of Cladosiphon fucoidan and other polysaccharides on H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin was assayed in vitro with mucin-coated microtiter plates. The effect of Cladosiphon fucoidan on H. pylori-induced gastritis was examined in vivo using Mongolian gerbils. H. pylori-inoculated gerbils were given fucoidan in drinking water. Six weeks after H. pylori-inoculation, gerbils were sacrificed for macroscopic and microscopic examination of gastric lesions and counting of viable H. pylori in the gastric mucosa.Results. Cladosiphon fucoidan inhibited the H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin at pH 2.0 and 4.0. Two other sulfated polysaccharides, Fucus fucoidan and dextran sulfate sodium, also inhibited the attachment but only at pH 2.0. Inhibitory effects of these three sulfated polysaccharides were not observed at pH 7.2 and nonsulfated polysaccharides, such as mannan and dextran, exerted no influence at any pH. In the in vivo experiment, the H. pylori-induced gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori infected animals were markedly reduced by fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner, at doses of 0.05 and 0.5% in the drinking water.Conclusion. Cladosiphon fucoidan may deserve particular attention as a safe agent that can prevent H. pylori infection and reduce the risk of associated gastric cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Nimesulide ; Cyclooxygenase 2 ; Aberrant crypt foci ; Azoxymethane ; Rat colon carcinogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as piroxicam and sulindac, are known to inhibit development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and cancer in the colon. However, these agents cause gastrointestinal side-effects. Nimesulide is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 2 and has been shown to have a more potent anti-inflammatory action than piroxicam, but be less ulcerogenic and, therefore, a potentially more useful chemopreventive agent. To assess this possibility the inhibitory effects of nimesulide on the formation of ACF induced by azoxymethane in rat colon were investigated, and compared with those of piroxicam and sulindac. Male F344 rats were treated s.c. with 15 mg/kg body weight azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks and given 50, 100 or 200 ppm nimesulide, 200 ppm piroxicam, or 200 ppm sulindac in their diet from the day before the first carcinogen treatment until the end of the experiment at week 4. At this time, nimesulide at doses of 50, 100 and 200 ppm had reduced the numbers of azoxymethane-induced ACF to 75%, 71% and 65% respectively compared to the control. The number of azoxymethane-induced ACF per colon in the group given 200 ppm nimesulide was almost the same as in those given 200 ppm piroxicam, and lower than that in the group given 200 ppm sulindac. These results suggest that nimesulide, a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, warrants attention as a candidate for chemopreventive agent with low toxicity, active against colon carcinogenesis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase ; gene-disruption ; embryonic stem cell ; DNA damage responses ; p53 ; pRB ; cdk2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To elucidate the biological functions of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP, [EC 2.4.2.30]) in DNA damage responses, genetic and biochemical approaches were undertaken. By disrupting exon 1 of the mouse PARP gene by a homologous recombination, PARP-deficient mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and mice could be produced without demonstrating lethality. PARP-/- ES cells showed complete loss of PARP activity and increased sensitivity to γ-irradiation and an alkylating agents, indicating a physiological role for PARP in the response to DNA damage. p53, a key molecule in cellular DNA damage response, was found to stimulate PARP activity and became poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated in the presence of damaged DNA. However, PARP-/- ES cells showed p21 and Mdm-2 mRNA induction following γ-irradiation, indicating that PARP activity is not indispensable for p21 and Mdm-2 mRNA induction in the established p53-cascade. On the other hand, in a reconstituted reaction system, purified PARP from human placenta suppressed the pRB-phosphorylation activity in the presence of NAD and damaged DNA. Human PARP expressed in E. coli showed a similar effect on pRB-phosphorylation activity of cdk2. These findings suggest a direct involvement of PARP in the regulation of cdk activity for cell-cycle arrest.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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