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  • 1
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The effect of oxygen segregation at grain boundaries on the deformation of 1 wt% boron (B)- and carbon (C)-doped β-silicon carbide (B, C-doped SiC) was investigated by compression testing at 2073 K. We studied the deformation of sinter-forged B, C-doped SiC (sinter-forged SiC), which contained the minimum amount (0.07 wt%) of oxygen as an impurity, and that of hot isostatically pressed B, C-doped SiC (HIPed SiC), which contained 1 wt% oxygen. Oxygen was detected at grain boundary in HIPed SiC by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, but it was not detected in sinter-forged SiC. The strain rate of sinter-forged SiC was one order of magnitude lower than that of HIPed SiC at the same grain size. The grain growth rate of sinter-forged SiC was lower than that of HIPed SiC also. These results suggest that the oxygen segregation at grain boundaries, together with boron segregation, promoted the grain-boundary diffusion in B, C-doped SiC. But, the oxygen segregation without boron was less effective in promoting deformation than the boron segregation without oxygen.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The deformation behavior of boron- and carbon-doped β-silicon carbide (B,C-SiC) with an average grain size of 260 ± 18 nm containing 1 wt% boron was investigated by compression testing at elevated temperatures. Extensive grain growth during deformation was observed. The stress–strain curves were compensated for grain growth by assuming power-law type of dependence on grain size and strain rate. The stress exponent n was ∼1.3 and the grain size exponent p was ∼2.7 at temperatures ranging from 1593° to 1758°C. The apparent activation energy of deformation Qd was ∼760 kJ/mol, which was lower than the activation energy for lattice diffusion of silicon and carbon in SiC and higher than that for grain-boundary diffusion of carbon in SiC. These results suggest that the deformation mechanism of the fine-grained B,C-SiC is grain-boundary sliding accommodated by the grain-boundary diffusion.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis revealed a dynamic evolution of grain-boundary (GB) films in a liquid phase (Al2O3–Y2O3–CaO) sintered β-SiC, which had been deformed both in tension and in compression. An effective chemical width was measured from the oxygen segregation to GBs. Significant increase of Al content in GB films was correlated to devitrification of amorphous pockets to form YAG during both deformations. This brought Y into and expelled Al from the pockets. The extra Al was pushed into GBs to form alumina-based films. Al-Y interdiffusion between GB films and pockets is related to deformation time, indicating a constant and limited interdiffusion rate. This evolution of GB films demonstrated that the dynamic process equilibrated these intergranular regions and phases. GB sliding and interdiffusion among intergranular regions were common mechanisms for both deformation modes. Fracture was mainly caused by YAG formation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Ultrafine-grained monoclinic ZrO2 polycrystals (MZP) and 3-mol%-Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 polycrystals (3Y-TZP) were obtained by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Both MZP and TZP were “high-purity” materials with impurities less than 0.1 wt%. The deformation behavior was studied at 1373 K, which was lower than the monoclinic ↔ tetragonal transition temperature. The stress exponent of 3Y-TZP with grain size of 63 nm was 3 in the higher stress region, and increased from 3 to 4 with decreasing stress. The deformation of MZP was characterized by a stress exponent of 2.5 over a wide stress range. The strain rate of 3Y-TZP was slower than that of MZP by 1 order of magnitude. It was suggested that either the doped yttrium or the difference in the crystal structure affected the diffusion coefficients of ZrO2.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Si-C-O bulk ceramics with various atomic ratios were produced by pyrolysis and high-temperature treatment (HTT) of a polycarbosilane (PCS) precursor with a given amount of oxygen. The oxygen introduction within the PCS molecular structure makes the compact infusible during the pyrolysis step, and supports sintering. The derived chemical compositions are mapped on a Si-C-O constitution diagram, with their transition behaviors due to HTT described. Upon heating between 1500° and 1700°C, the chemical compositions of the as-pyrolyzed specimens were as follows: PCS-6 (SiC1.36O0.26), PCS-8 (SiC1.25O0.45), and PCS-10 (SiC1.02O0.68), moving toward C/Si = 1.2, 1.0, and 0.8 with a reduction of the oxygen content, respectively. It is also shown that there are influences of the initial oxygen content on the resulting microstructure of both as-pyrolyzed and heat-treated specimens.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Boron segregation to grain boundaries in SiC was directly observed for the first time by using spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy methods. The hot-pressed, fully dense material was doped with 0.3 wt% of boron and was free of other additives, except for 2 wt% of free carbon. The detection of boron was achieved in the difference spectra at all the grain boundaries that were examined. Its interfacial excess was in the range of 15–29 atoms/nm2, or approximately one monolayer. Concurrently, silicon depletion occurred at these boundaries, although to a lesser extent (−13.5 atoms/nm2 on average), which indicated that boron mainly replaces silicon and bonds with carbon at the grain boundary. These findings validate the dual role of boron at the grain boundary for promoting densification via improved grain-boundary diffusivity while maintaining a covalent grain boundary without an oxide phase.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Westerville, Ohio : American Ceramics Society
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Nanocrystalline silicon carbide that was doped with boron and carbon (B,C-SiC) and contained 1 wt% boron additive and 3.5 wt% free carbon was fabricated using hot isostatic pressing under an ultrahigh pressure of 980 MPa and a temperature of 1600°C. The average grain size of the material was 200 nm. The tensile deformation behavior of this material at elevated temperature was investigated. The nanocrystalline B,C-SiC exhibited superplastic elongation of 〉140% at a temperature of 1800°C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation and electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis revealed that this nanocrystalline SiC did not have a secondary glassy phase at the grain boundary and the grain boundary had a strong covalent nature, which means that an intergranular glassy phase was not necessary to obtain superplasticity of covalent materials.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The effect of the amount of boron doping in the range of 0 to 1.0 wt% on the high-temperature deformation of fine-grained β-silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated by compression testing. Flow stress at the same grain size increased as the amount of boron doping decreased. The stress exponent increased from 1.3 to 3.4 as the amount of boron doping decreased. The strain rates of undoped SiC were ∼2 orders of magnitude lower than those of 1.0-wt%-boron-doped SiC of the same grain size. The apparent activation energies of SiC doped with 1.0 wt% boron and of undoped SiC were 771 ± 12 and 884 ± 80 kJ/mol, respectively. These results suggest that the actual contribution of grain-boundary diffusion to the accommodation process of grain-boundary sliding decreased as the amount of boron doping decreased. Consequently, the apparent contribution of the dislocation glide increased.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The deformation behavior of nanocrystalline monoclinic ZrO2 polycrystals (nanocrystalline MZP) was studied at 1273–1373 K in compression tests. The deformation of nanocrystalline MZP was characterized by stress exponent (n= 2.5), grain-size exponent (p= 2.5), and apparent activation energy (Q= 350 kJ/mol). The values of n and p were similar to the superplasticity of high-purity Zn-22% aluminum alloy. The strain rate of nanocrystalline MZP was faster than that of Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 (Y-TZP) at temperatures lower than the monoclinic-tetragonal transition temperature. The strain rate of MZP gradually approached to that of Y-TZP as the temperature increased to the transition temperature. The comparison of present data with published data suggested that trace amount of impurities affected the deformation behavior of MZP.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Densification behavior of precursor-derived Si-C-N ceramics by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has been investigated to obtain dense ceramics derived from polymer precursor. An as-pyrolyzed ceramic monolith, which had a porosity of about 17%, could be deformed up to a strain of 8% in preliminary uniaxial compression tests. The flow stress of the material was much higher than 200 MPa at 1600°C; thus high stress was necessary for densification by HIP. The density of the monolith increased from 1.9 to 2.4 g/cm3 by HIP at 1600°C and 980 MPa. Although the number of pores decreased, large pores were formed in the hot isostatically pressed monolith. On the other hand, denser ceramics, in which pores were not observed by optical microscopy, were obtained by hot isostatically pressing the pyrolyzed powder compact.
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