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  • 1
    Abstract: Control of intestinal epithelial stemness is crucial for tissue homeostasis. Disturbances in epithelial function are implicated in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report that mitochondrial function plays a critical role in maintaining intestinal stemness and homeostasis. Using intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific mouse models, we show that loss of HSP60, a mitochondrial chaperone, activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (MT-UPR) and results in mitochondrial dysfunction. HSP60-deficient crypts display loss of stemness and cell proliferation, accompanied by epithelial release of WNT10A and RSPO1. Sporadic failure of Cre-mediated Hsp60 deletion gives rise to hyperproliferative crypt foci originating from OLFM4+ stem cells. These effects are independent of the MT-UPR-associated transcription factor CHOP. In conclusion, compensatory hyperproliferation of HSP60+ escaper stem cells suggests paracrine release of WNT-related factors from HSP60-deficient, functionally impaired IEC to be pivotal in the control of the proliferative capacity of the stem cell niche.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27786175
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been successfully used as cancer immunotherapy. We find that the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species. In mice and patients, T cell responses specific for B. thetaiotaomicron or B. fragilis were associated with the efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade. Tumors in antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice did not respond to CTLA blockade. This defect was overcome by gavage with B. fragilis, by immunization with B. fragilis polysaccharides, or by adoptive transfer of B. fragilis-specific T cells. Fecal microbial transplantation from humans to mice confirmed that treatment of melanoma patients with antibodies against CTLA-4 favored the outgrowth of B. fragilis with anticancer properties. This study reveals a key role for Bacteroidales in the immunostimulatory effects of CTLA-4 blockade.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4721659/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4721659/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vetizou, Marie -- Pitt, Jonathan M -- Daillere, Romain -- Lepage, Patricia -- Waldschmitt, Nadine -- Flament, Caroline -- Rusakiewicz, Sylvie -- Routy, Bertrand -- Roberti, Maria P -- Duong, Connie P M -- Poirier-Colame, Vichnou -- Roux, Antoine -- Becharef, Sonia -- Formenti, Silvia -- Golden, Encouse -- Cording, Sascha -- Eberl, Gerard -- Schlitzer, Andreas -- Ginhoux, Florent -- Mani, Sridhar -- Yamazaki, Takahiro -- Jacquelot, Nicolas -- Enot, David P -- Berard, Marion -- Nigou, Jerome -- Opolon, Paule -- Eggermont, Alexander -- Woerther, Paul-Louis -- Chachaty, Elisabeth -- Chaput, Nathalie -- Robert, Caroline -- Mateus, Christina -- Kroemer, Guido -- Raoult, Didier -- Boneca, Ivo Gomperts -- Carbonnel, Franck -- Chamaillard, Mathias -- Zitvogel, Laurence -- R01 CA161879/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 27;350(6264):1079-84. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1329. Epub 2015 Nov 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. INSERM U1015, GRCC, Villejuif, France. University of Paris Sud XI, Kremlin-Bicetre, France. ; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Micalis-UMR1319, 78360 Jouy-en-Josas, France. ; University of Lille, CNRS, INSERM, Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1019, UMR 8204, Centre d'Infection et d'Immunite de Lille (CIIL), F-59000 Lille, France. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. INSERM U1015, GRCC, Villejuif, France. Center of Clinical Investigations in Biotherapies of Cancer 1428, Villejuif, France. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. INSERM U1015, GRCC, Villejuif, France. University of Paris Sud XI, Kremlin-Bicetre, France. Center of Clinical Investigations in Biotherapies of Cancer 1428, Villejuif, France. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. INSERM U1015, GRCC, Villejuif, France. Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France. ; Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, NY, USA. ; Microenvironment and Immunity Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. ; Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore. ; Department of Genetics and Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France. Metabolomics Platform, GRCC, Villejuif, France. ; Animalerie Centrale, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. ; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale (IPBS), Toulouse, France. Universite de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier, IPBS, F-31077 Toulouse, France. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. INSERM U1015, GRCC, Villejuif, France. Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. ; Service de microbiologie, GRCC, Villejuif, France. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. Laboratory of Immunomonitoring in Oncology, UMS 3655 CNRS/US 23 INSERM, GRCC, Villejuif, France. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. INSERM U981, GRCC, Villejuif, France. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. ; Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France. Metabolomics Platform, GRCC, Villejuif, France. INSERM U848, Villejuif, France. Equipe 11 Labellisee-Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM U1138, Paris, France. Pole de Biologie, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France. ; Unite des Rickettsies, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille, France. ; Institut Pasteur, Unit of Biology and Genetics of the Bacterial Cell Wall, Paris, France. INSERM, Equipe Avenir, Paris, France. ; University of Paris Sud XI, Kremlin-Bicetre, France. Gastroenterology Department, Hopital Bicetre, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France. ; Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC), 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. INSERM U1015, GRCC, Villejuif, France. University of Paris Sud XI, Kremlin-Bicetre, France. Center of Clinical Investigations in Biotherapies of Cancer 1428, Villejuif, France. laurence.zitvogel@gustaveroussy.fr.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26541610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects/*therapeutic use ; Bacteroides/*immunology ; CTLA-4 Antigen/*antagonists & inhibitors/immunology ; Dysbiosis/immunology ; Fecal Microbiota Transplantation ; Female ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects/*immunology ; Germ-Free Life/immunology ; Humans ; Immunologic Memory ; Immunotherapy ; Intestines/immunology/microbiology ; Male ; Melanoma/*therapy ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Middle Aged ; Skin Neoplasms/*therapy ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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