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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Disseminated fungal infections are increasing. However, the interactions between the body's largest population of tissue macrophages, the Kupffer cells and the fungal pathogens are scarcely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling in cytokine production, using primary cultures of rat and murine Kupffer cells exposed to Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans hyphae and conidia. All fungal components induced the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but with delayed kinetics compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Candida albicans was the most potent inducer of TNF-α protein and mRNA and the only inducer of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in rat Kupffer cells. All fungal components induced enhanced mRNA levels of macrophage inhibitory protein-2 (MIP-2) in the cells, similar to LPS. Inhibitors of Src tyrosine kinases added to cells prior to stimulation led to attenuation in the release of both TNF-α (60%, P 〈 0.05) and IL-10 (70%, P 〈 0.05) induced by C. albicans conidia but did not influence the LPS-mediated cytokine release. Murine Kupffer cells (C57BL/10J) also released TNF-α as well as the chemokines keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and MIP-2 in response to fungal component. Surprisingly, Kupffer cells from TLR4-deficient C57BL/ScCr mice exhibited significantly enhanced production of KC and MIP-2 upon stimulation by fungal components compared with control littermates (P 〈 0.05). Our study demonstrates that Aspergillus and Candida components induce cytokine production in rat Kupffer cells and that the response to C. albicans conidia involves Src tyrosine kinases. The experiments with TLR4-deficient Kupffer cells suggest that the cytokine response in these cells to fungal component is not mediated by TLR4.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Current immunosuppressive strategies are aimed at abrogating the allospecific T-cell response against donor tissues or organs. However, little information is yet available on the potential influences of these drugs on innate immune responses. In order to address this, we have employed a whole blood model. Human whole blood was pretreated with sirolimus, cyclosporine A or tacrolimus in therapeutic as well as supra therapeutic doses, and subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PepG) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Plasma cytokine analyses revealed a potent inhibitory effect of sirolimus on interleukin(IL)-10 production induced by all bacterial products tested. In contrast, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in response to LPS, but not to PepG and LTA. Using a quantitative mRNA analyses, we also observed that sirolimus significantly decreased the IL-10 mRNA accumulation to sub-basal levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This suggests that the sirolimus inhibits IL-10 production by interfering with the IL-10 gene transcription. However, the molecular mechanism of this inhibition remains unclear. Based on the present study and observations by others, we postulate that the clinical use of the sirolimus may be associated with a dysregulated innate immune response to bacterial infection and thus an increased risk of hyperinflammation and sepsis.
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