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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-binding nuclear protein, plays a critical role in sepsis by acting as a key "late-phase" inflammatory mediator. Integrin CD11b is essential for inflammatory cell activation and migration, thus mediating inflammatory responses. However, it is unclear whether CD11b participates in the development of sepsis. In this study, we report that CD11b contributes to LPS-induced endotoxin shock and microbial sepsis, as antagonism of CD11b with the CD11b blocking Ab or CD11b inhibitor Gu-4 protects mice against LPS- and microbial sepsis-related lethality, which is associated with significantly diminished serum HMGB1 levels. Consistent with this, CD11b-deficient mice were more resistant to microbial sepsis with a much lower serum HMGB1 level compared with wild-type mice. Pharmacological blockage and genetic knockdown/knockout of CD11b in murine macrophages hampered LPS-stimulated HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation and extracellular release. Furthermore, silencing CD11b interrupted the interaction of HMGB1 with either a nuclear export factor chromosome region maintenance 1 or classical protein kinase C and inhibited classical protein kinase C–induced HMGB1 phosphorylation, the potential underlying mechanism(s) responsible for CD11b blockage-induced suppression of HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation and subsequent extracellular release. Thus, our results highlight that CD11b contributes to the development of sepsis, predominantly by facilitating nucleocytoplasmic translocation and active release of HMGB1.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Strain engineering has emerged as a powerful tool to enhance the performance of known functional materials. Here we demonstrate a general and practical method to obtain super-tetragonality and giant polarization using interphase strain. We use this method to create an out-of-plane–to–in-plane lattice parameter ratio of 1.238 in epitaxial composite thin films of tetragonal lead titanate (PbTiO 3 ), compared to 1.065 in bulk. These thin films with super-tetragonal structure possess a giant remanent polarization, 236.3 microcoulombs per square centimeter, which is almost twice the value of known ferroelectrics. The super-tetragonal phase is stable up to 725°C, compared to the bulk transition temperature of 490°C. The interphase-strain approach could enhance the physical properties of other functional materials.
    Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Plant immunity often penalizes growth and yield. The transcription factor Ideal Plant Architecture 1 (IPA1) reduces unproductive tillers and increases grains per panicle, which results in improved rice yield. Here we report that higher IPA1 levels enhance immunity. Mechanistically, phosphorylation of IPA1 at amino acid Ser 163 within its DNA binding domain occurs in response to infection by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and alters the DNA binding specificity of IPA1. Phosphorylated IPA1 binds to the promoter of the pathogen defense gene WRKY45 and activates its expression, leading to enhanced disease resistance. IPA1 returns to a nonphosphorylated state within 48 hours after infection, resuming support of the growth needed for high yield. Thus, IPA1 promotes both yield and disease resistance by sustaining a balance between growth and immunity.
    Keywords: Botany
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Loss of monoubiquitination of histone H2B (H2Bub1) was found to be associated with poor-differentiation and enhanced malignancy of lung adenocarcinoma. This study investigated the association and impact of the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (USP22), an H2Bub1 deubiquitinase, on stem cell-like characteristics and cisplatin resistance in cancer-initiating cells (CIC) from primary lung adenocarcinoma. CICs were isolated, enriched, and characterized from patient-derived cancer tissues using both in vitro tumorsphere formation and in vivo xenograft assays. USP22 was determined to be predominantly expressed in CICs, a subpopulation of cells with high expression of the stem cell biomarkers, CD133 and CD44. The expression of USP22 in CICs is markedly reduced upon FBS/retinoic acid-induced differentiation. Moreover, knockdown of USP22 significantly suppressed tumorsphere formation and xenograft growth in NOD-SCID gamma (NSG) mice. Notably, USP22 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity were elevated in tumorsphere cells that survived cisplatin treatment, whereas knockdown of USP22 significantly sensitizes tumorsphere cells to cisplatin. Interestingly, ALDH1A3, a predominant ALDH isozyme implicated in enhancing cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma, is significantly downregulated upon knockdown of USP22 in tumorsphere cells. Furthermore, knockdown of ALDH1A3 significantly sensitizes tumorsphere cells to cisplatin. Combined, these data demonstrate that USP22, predominantly expressed in CD133 + CICs, plays a critical role in tumorigenicity and cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. Implications: Targeting USP22 represents a potential therapeutic approach to suppress CICs in lung adenocarcinoma partially through downregulation of ALDH1A3 expression. Mol Cancer Res; 16(7); 1161–71. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1541-7786
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3125
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of primary liver cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is one of the recognized risk factors for hepatocarcinogenesis likely due to CYP2E1-mediated metabolic activation. However, CYP2E1-mediated DEN metabolic activity in non-neoplastic liver tissue from HCC patients has not been determined; the role of CYP2E1 activity, in particular CYP2E1 constitutive activity and CYP2E1 inhibited activity, with respect to the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by DEN is not yet clear. Herein, we determined CYP2E1-mediated DEN metabolic activity in non-neoplastic liver tissue from HCC patients and found that CYP2E1-mediated DEN metabolic activity was significantly elevated with a 43.3% positive rate, and clinicopathologic parameters did not affect the activity. Then, using a Sprague-Dawley rat liver tumor model induced by DEN, the relationship between CYP2E1 constitutive/inhibited activity and hepatocarcinogenesis was explored. The results showed that the CYP2E1 constitutive activity was strongly correlated with tumor incidence and severity of liver tumorigenesis (nodule numbers and size), whereas inhibition of CYP2E1 activity decreased hepatocyte proliferation, liver injury, and liver carcinogenesis in the presence of DEN. In conclusion, the higher CYP2E1 activity would lead to an increased incidence of HCC as a result of CYP2E1-mediated DEN activation. Therefore, higher CYP2E1 activity might be a risk factor for HCC induced by DEN.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: Purpose: Chemoresistance in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is reportedly attributed to the existence of resistant cancer stem cells (CSC). Studies involving CSC-specific markers and related mechanisms in SCLC remain limited. This study explored the role of the voltage-dependent calcium channel α21 subunit as a CSC marker in chemoresistance of SCLC, and explored the potential mechanisms of α21-mediated chemoresistance and strategies of overcoming the resistance. Experimental Design: α21-positive cells were identified and isolated from SCLC cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, and CSC-like properties were subsequently verified. Transcriptome sequencing and Western blotting were carried out to identify pathways involved in α21-mediated chemoresistance in SCLC. In addition, possible interventions to overcome α21-mediated chemoresistance were examined. Results: Different proportions of α21 + cells were identified in SCLC cell lines and PDX models. α21 + cells exhibited CSC-like properties (self-renewal, tumorigenic, differentiation potential, and high expression of genes related to CSCs and drug resistance). Chemotherapy induced the enrichment of α21 + cells instead of CD133 + cells in PDXs, and an increased proportion of α21 + cells corresponded to increased chemoresistance. Activation and overexpression of ERK in the α21-positive H1048 cell line was identified at the protein level. mAb 1B50-1 was observed to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy and delay relapse as maintenance therapy in PDX models. Conclusions: SCLC cells expressing α21 demonstrated CSC-like properties, and may contribute to chemoresistance. ERK may play a key role in α21-mediated chemoresistance. mAb 1B50-1 may serve as a potential anti-SCLC drug. Clin Cancer Res; 24(9); 2148–58. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: There is an overwhelming abundance of genetic association studies available in the literature, which can often be collectively difficult to interpret. To address this issue, the Venice interim guidelines were established for determining the credibility of the cumulative evidence. The objective of this report is to evaluate the literature on the association of common glutathione S-transferase (GST) variants (GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism) and lung cancer, and to assess the credibility of the associations using the newly proposed cumulative evidence guidelines. METHODS: Information from the literature was enriched with an updated meta-analysis and a pooled analysis using data from the Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens database. RESULTS: There was a significant association between GSTM1 null and lung cancer for the meta-analysis (meta odds ratio=1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.25) and pooled analysis (adjusted odds ratio=1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.16), although substantial heterogeneity was present. No overall association between lung cancer and GSTT1 null or GSTP1 Ile105Val was found. When the Venice criteria was applied, cumulative evidence for all associations were considered 'weak', with the exception of East Asian carriers of the G allele of GSTP1 Ile105Val, which was graded as 'moderate' evidence. CONCLUSION: Despite the large amounts of studies, and several statistically significant summary estimates produced by meta-analyses, the application of the Venice criteria suggests extensive heterogeneity and susceptibility to bias for the studies on association of common genetic polymorphisms, such as with GST variants and lung cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20729793
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: We engineered a microneedle patch integrated with cardiac stromal cells (MN-CSCs) for therapeutic heart regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (MI). To perform cell-based heart regeneration, cells are currently delivered to the heart via direct muscle injection, intravascular infusion, or transplantation of epicardial patches. The first two approaches suffer from poor cell retention, while epicardial patches integrate slowly with host myocardium. Here, we used polymeric MNs to create "channels" between host myocardium and therapeutic CSCs. These channels allow regenerative factors secreted by CSCs to be released into the injured myocardium to promote heart repair. In the rat MI model study, the application of the MN-CSC patch effectively augmented cardiac functions and enhanced angiomyogenesis. In the porcine MI model study, MN-CSC patch application was nontoxic and resulted in cardiac function protection. The MN system represents an innovative approach delivering therapeutic cells for heart regeneration.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Although genomic instability, epigenetic abnormality, and gene expression dysregulation are hallmarks of colorectal cancer, these features have not been simultaneously analyzed at single-cell resolution. Using optimized single-cell multiomics sequencing together with multiregional sampling of the primary tumor and lymphatic and distant metastases, we developed insights beyond intratumoral heterogeneity. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels were relatively consistent within a single genetic sublineage. The genome-wide DNA demethylation patterns of cancer cells were consistent in all 10 patients whose DNA we sequenced. The cancer cells’ DNA demethylation degrees clearly correlated with the densities of the heterochromatin-associated histone modification H3K9me3 of normal tissue and those of repetitive element long interspersed nuclear element 1. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of reconstructing genetic lineages and tracing their epigenomic and transcriptomic dynamics with single-cell multiomics sequencing.
    Keywords: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: 18 F-alfatide II has been proven to have excellent clinical translational potential. In this study, we investigated 18 F-alfatide II for identifying breast cancer and compared the performances between 18 F-alfatide II and 18 F-FDG. Methods: Forty-four female patients with suspected primary breast cancer were recruited. PET/CT images using 18 F-alfatide II and 18 F-FDG were acquired within 7 d. Tracer uptake in breast lesions was evaluated by visual analysis, and semiquantitative analysis with SUV max and SUV mean . Results: Forty-two breast cancer lesions and 11 benign breast lesions were confirmed by histopathology in 44 patients. Both 18 F-alfatide II and 18 F-FDG had higher uptake in breast cancer lesions than in benign breast lesions ( P 〈 0.05 for 18 F-alfatide II, P 〈 0.05 for 18 F-FDG). The area under the curve of 18 F-alfatide II was slightly less than that of 18 F-FDG. Both 18 F-alfatide II and 18 F-FDG had high sensitivity (88.1% vs. 90.5%), high positive predictive value (88.1% vs. 88.4%), moderate specificity (54.5% vs. 54.5%), and moderate negative predictive value (54.5% vs. 60.0%) for differentiating breast cancer from benign breast lesions. By combining 18 F-alfatide II and 18 F-FDG, the sensitivity and negative predictive value significantly increased to 97.6% and 85.7%, respectively, with positive predictive value slightly increased to 89.1% and no change to the specificity (54.5%). The uptake of 18 F-alfatide II (SUV max : 3.77 ± 1.78) was significantly lower than that of 18 F-FDG (SUV max : 7.37 ± 4.48) in breast cancer lesions ( P 〈 0.05). 18 F-alfatide II uptake in triple-negative subtype was significantly lower than that in luminal A and luminal B subtypes. By contrast, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)–overexpressing subtype had higher 18 F-FDG uptake than the other 3 subtypes. There were 8 breast cancer lesions with higher 18 F-alfatide II uptake than 18 F-FDG uptake, which all had a common characteristic that HER-2 expression was negative and estrogen receptor expression was strongly positive. Conclusion: 18 F-alfatide II is suitable for clinical use in breast cancer patients. 18 F-alfatide II is of good performance, but not superior to 18 F-FDG in identifying breast cancer. 18 F-alfatide II may have superiority to 18 F-FDG in detecting breast cancer with strongly positive estrogen receptor expression and negative HER-2 expression.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3123
    Topics: Medicine
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