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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Purpose: Emerging studies demonstrate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) participate in the regulation of various cancers. In the current study, a novel lncRNA-TTN-AS1 has been identified and explored in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Experimental Design: To discover a new regulatory circuitry in which RNAs crosstalk with each other, the transcriptome of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA from ESCC and adjacent nonmalignant specimens were analyzed using multiple microarrays and diverse bioinformatics platforms. The functional role and mechanism of a novel lncRNA-TTN-AS1 were further investigated by gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays in vivo and in vitro . An ESCC biomarker panel, consisting of lncRNA-TTN-AS1 , miR-133b , and FSCN1 , was validated by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization using samples from 148 patients. Results: lncRNA-TTN-AS1 as an oncogene is highly expressed in ESCC tissues and cell lines, and promotes ESCC cell proliferation and metastasis. Mechanistically, lncRNA-TTN-AS1 promotes expression of transcription factor Snail1 by competitively binding miR-133b , resulting in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) cascade. Moreover, lncRNA-TTN-AS1 also induces FSCN1 expression by sponging miR-133b and upregulation of mRNA-stabilizing protein HuR, which further promotes ESCC invasion cascades. We also discovered and validated a clinically applicable ESCC biomarker panel, consisting of lncRNA-TTN-AS1 , miR-133b , and FSCN1 , that is significantly associated with overall survival and provides additional prognostic evidence for ESCC patients. Conclusions: As a novel regulator, lncRNA-TTN-AS1 plays an important role in ESCC cell proliferation and metastasis. The lncRNA-TTN-AS1/miR133b/FSCN1 regulatory axis provides bona fide targets for anti-ESCC therapies. Clin Cancer Res; 24(2); 486–98. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex psychiatric diseases with risks contributed by multiple genes. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in these disorders, but little is known about such dysregulation in the human brain. We analyzed three transcriptome datasets from 394 postmortem brain tissue samples from patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder or from healthy control individuals without a known history of psychiatric disease. We built genome-wide coexpression networks that included microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified a coexpression network module that was differentially expressed in the brain tissue from patients compared to healthy control individuals. This module contained genes that were principally involved in glial and neural cell genesis and glial cell differentiation, and included schizophrenia risk genes carrying rare variants. This module included five miRNAs and 545 mRNAs, with six transcription factors serving as hub genes in this module. We found that the most connected transcription factor gene POU3F2 , also identified on a genome-wide association study for bipolar disorder, could regulate the miRNA hsa-miR-320e and other putative target mRNAs. These regulatory relationships were replicated using PsychENCODE/BrainGVEX datasets and validated by knockdown and overexpression experiments in SH-SY5Y cells and human neural progenitor cells in vitro. Thus, we identified a brain gene expression module that was enriched for rare coding variants in genes associated with schizophrenia and that contained the putative bipolar disorder risk gene POU3F2 . The transcription factor POU3F2 may be a key regulator of gene expression in this disease-associated gene coexpression module.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Cell functions can be mediated through their interactions with the microenvironments, which highly depend on the surface state of the substrate. However, how to finely adjust the surface of biomaterials is still very challenging. In this study, poly( d,l -lactide) (PDLLA) with high molecular weight was synthesized via ring opening polymerization, which was hot-pressed into PDLLA membrane. In order to modify the hydrophobicity of the membrane (a limiting factor for its biomedical application), an amphiphilic monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly( d,l -lactide) (PEG-PDLLA) was selected to improve its surface hydrophilicity through a simple self-assembly approach. It was found that the contact angles of the modified membrane can be well controlled by variation of PEG-PDLLA concentrations. In vitro cell biological study indicates that optimized cell adhesion can be achieved on the modified membrane with a contact angle of around 50° via its self-assembly with an ethanol/water solution of PEG-PDLA (35 mg ml –1 ). The surface modification of the membrane also changed its biodegradation property in the process of its incubation period up to 240 days. The surface modification method may afford an effective way for adjustment of the surface (interface) of membrane (scaffolds) of different biomaterials, beyond polylactide.
    Keywords: biomaterials
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-03
    Description: Quantum oscillations are usually the manifestation of the underlying physical nature in condensed matter systems. Here, we report a new type of log-periodic quantum oscillations in ultraquantum three-dimensional topological materials. Beyond the quantum limit (QL), we observe the log-periodic oscillations involving up to five oscillating cycles (five peaks and five dips) on the magnetoresistance of high-quality single-crystal ZrTe 5 , virtually showing the clearest feature of discrete scale invariance (DSI). Further, theoretical analyses show that the two-body quasi-bound states can be responsible for the DSI feature. Our work provides a new perspective on the ground state of topological materials beyond the QL.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Conditional knockout mice with targeted disruption of B-cell associated protein (BAP)31 in adult mouse liver were generated and challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 36 or 96 days and markers of obesity, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis were determined. Mutant mice were indistinguishable from WT littermates, but exhibited increased HFD-induced obesity. BAP31-deletion in hepatocytes increased the expression of SREBP1C and the target genes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and HFD-induced liver steatosis. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAP31 interacts with SREBP1C and insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1), and BAP31-deletion reduces INSIG1 expression, suggesting that BAP31 may regulate SREBP1C activity by modulating INSIG1 protein levels. Additionally, BAP31-deletion induced glucose and insulin intolerance, decreased Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylation, and enhanced hepatic glucose production in mice. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers was significantly induced in BAP31-mutant mice. HFD-induced inflammation was aggravated in mutant mice, along with increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-B activation. These findings demonstrate that BAP31-deletion induces SREBP activation and promotes hepatic lipid accumulation, reduces insulin signaling, impairs glucose/insulin tolerance, and increases ER stress and hepatic inflammation, explaining the protective roles of BAP31 in the development of liver steatosis and insulin resistance in HFD-induced obesity in animal models.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2275
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-7262
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Purpose: PI3K and STAT3 are frequently activated in cancer progression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which PI3K and STAT3 regulate head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) growth. The lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA ( HOTAIR ) was found to modulate the progression of HNSCC. In this study, we attempted to establish the correlation of PI3K/STAT3/HOTAIR signaling with the progression of HNSCC and its sensitivity toward platinum-based and targeted anti-EGFR combination therapy. Experimental Design: We first analyzed the STAT3/HOTAIR and PI3K/AKT level in human HNSCC samples. We then activated or suppressed STAT3/HOTAIR and determined the effects on HNSCC cell proliferation in vitro and the growth of UM1 xenograft tumor, an orthotopic model of HNSCC. The sensitivity of HNSCC cells toward cisplatin and cetuximab was determined by in vitro assays. Results: HNSCC samples showed significantly robust expression/activation of STAT3, HOTAIR, PI3K, and AKT, compared with normal squamous epithelium. STAT3 inhibition with WP1066 decreased HOTAIR level and sensitized HNSCC to cisplatin or cetuximab. STAT3 promoted HOTAIR transcription and its interaction with pEZH2-S21, resulting in enhanced growth of HNSCC cells. In addition, overexpression of HOTAIR promoted the growth of UM1 xenograft tumors in vivo . Conclusions: Our results suggest that STAT3 signaling promotes HNSCC progression via regulating HOTAIR and pEZH2-S21 in HNSCC with PI3K overexpression/activation. These findings provide a rationale to target the STAT3/HOTAIR/pEZH2-S21 regulatory axis for treating patients with HNSCC. Clin Cancer Res; 24(11); 2665–77. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: A high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although LDL-C levels vary among humans and are heritable, the genetic factors affecting LDL-C are not fully characterized. We identified a rare frameshift variant in the LIMA1 (also known as EPLIN or SREBP3 ) gene from a Chinese family of Kazakh ethnicity with inherited low LDL-C and reduced cholesterol absorption. In a mouse model, LIMA1 was mainly expressed in the small intestine and localized on the brush border membrane. LIMA1 bridged NPC1L1, an essential protein for cholesterol absorption, to a transportation complex containing myosin Vb and facilitated cholesterol uptake. Similar to the human phenotype, Lima1 -deficient mice displayed reduced cholesterol absorption and were resistant to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Through our study of both mice and humans, we identify LIMA1 as a key protein regulating intestinal cholesterol absorption.
    Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-23
    Description: Introduction Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide which is inexpensive and easily accessible for people in rural areas. A small amount of PQ ingestion could be lethal, yet currently, the optimal treatment is still controversial. Extracorporeal therapies (ECTR) have been practised in PQ poisoning management, though limited evidence could be obtained to suggest its superiority over conservative therapy. Haemodialysis (HD) and haemoperfusion (HP) are most commonly used, while some institutions also choose HP–HD concurrent therapy. The object of the present trial is to investigate whether haemopurification therapy can reduce mortality compared with conservative therapy. Methods and analysis This is a planned single-centre, non-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Acute PQ poisoned adults who have orally ingested PQ within 24 hours would be recruited. A total of 360 patients would be recruited and randomly assigned to four groups, that is, HP, HD, concurrent HP–HD and control, at a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Subjects would be also stratified by their urine dithionite test results. Primary outcome is 28-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include survival time, all-cause mortality at the 3rd, 7th and 60th day, rate of major complications, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation score and Poisoning Severity Score, etc. Ethics and dissemination The protocol and informed consent documents have been approved by the Ethics Committee of The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University in September 2017 (approval number: 2017-KY-10). The result of this trial would be submitted to peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number NCT03314909 ; Pre-results.
    Keywords: Open access, Emergency medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Purpose: This study aims to construct the stromal immunotype, which could improve the prediction of postsurgical survival and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Experimental Design: A total of 118 patients with MIBC from Shanghai Cancer Center, 140 patients with MIBC from Zhongshan Hospital, and 287 patients with MIBC from TCGA cohort were included in the study. Immune cell infiltration was evaluated by IHC staining or CIBERSORT method. Five immune features were selected out of 22 immune features to construct immunotypes based on the LASSO Cox regression model. Results: Using the LASSO model, we classified patients with MIBC into stromal immunotype A subgroup (CTL high NK high Treg low Macrophage low MC low ) and stromal immunotype B subgroup (CTL low NK low Treg high Macrophage high MC high ). Significant differences were found between immunotype A and immunotype B in the combined cohort with 5-year overall survival (OS, 76.0% vs. 44.0%; P 〈 0.001) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS, 62.8% vs. 48.3%; P 〈 0.001). Stromal immunotype was revealed to be an independent prognostic indicator in multivariate analysis in all cohorts separately. Either OS or DFS was not improved by adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) in pT2 stage patients or pT3+pT4 patients, but further analysis revealed that OS and disease-free was significantly improved by ACT in pT3+pT4 patients ( P = 0.016 and P = 0.006, respectively). Finally, stromal immunotype A showed higher immune checkpoint molecules (PD-L1, PD-1, and CTLA-4) expression. Conclusions: The stromal immunotypes could effectively predict survival and recurrence of MIBC. Furthermore, the immunotypes might be a practical predictive tool to identify pT3+pT4 patients who would benefit from ACT. Clin Cancer Res; 24(13); 3069–78. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Purpose: The third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor osimertinib is approved to treat patients with EGFR T790M-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have developed resistance to earlier-generation drugs. Acquired EGFR C797S mutation has been reported to mediate osimertinib resistance in some patients. However, the remaining resistance mechanisms are largely unknown. Experimental Design: We performed mutation profiling using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for 416 cancer-relevant genes on 93 osimertinib-resistant lung cancer patients' samples, mainly cell-free DNAs (cfDNAs), and matched pretreatment samples of 12 patients. In vitro experiments were conducted to functionally study the secondary EGFR mutations identified. Results: EGFR G796/C797, L792, and L718/G719 mutations were identified in 24.7%, 10.8%, and 9.7% of the cases, respectively, with certain mutations coexisting in one patient with different prevalence. L792 and L718 mutants markedly increased the half inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of osimertinib in vitro , among which the L718Q mutation conferred the greatest resistance to osimertinib, as well as gefitinib resistance when not coexisting with T790M. Further analysis of the 12 matched pretreatment samples confirmed that these EGFR mutations were acquired during osimertinib treatment. Alterations in parallel or downstream oncogenes such as MET, KRAS , and PIK3CA were also discovered, potentially contributing to the osimertinib-resistance in patients without EGFR secondary mutations. Conclusions: We present comprehensive mutation profiles of a large cohort of osimertinib-resistance lung cancer patients using mainly cfDNA. Besides C797 mutations, novel secondary mutations of EGFR L718 and L792 residues confer osimertinib resistance, both in vitro and in vivo , and are of great clinical and pharmaceutical relevance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(13); 3097–107. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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