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  • 1
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; COHORT ; DNA-REPAIR ; DATABASE ; CONSUMPTION ; Mediterranean diet ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; CELL-CARCINOMA ; Food sources ; HEALTH-BENEFITS
    Abstract: Background: There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35-70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases. Results: During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n = 430) and non-aggressive (n = 413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.91; P-trend = 0.009) and lignans (HRQ5-Q 10.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96; P-trend = 0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC. Conclusions: Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25121955
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  • 2
    Keywords: RISK ; POLYPHENOLS ; DERIVATIVES ; CONSUMPTION ; CALIBRATION ; COFFEE ; ADULTS ; FLAVONOIDS ; bioavailability ; EXPLORER DATABASE
    Abstract: Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265.5 and 980.7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213.2 and 158.6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84.6-95.3% of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4.6-14.4%, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0.1-0.8% and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids 〈= 0.1% for all regions. An increasing south-north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55.3-80.7% of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23507418
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Epidemics of acute asthma associated with thunderstorms occur intermittently worldwide, though airway inflammation during these acute episodes has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize airway inflammation in thunderstorm asthma.Methods Cases were recruited after presentation to the emergency room with acute asthma immediately following a thunderstorm (n = 6). They were compared to two control groups: a group of atopic asthmatics that had presented with acute asthma to the emergency room prior to the thunderstorm (n = 12), and a second group of corticosteroid naïve asthmatics who presented to the emergency room in the prior 12 months (n = 6). Subjects had spirometry, sputum induction and allergy skin tests acutely and at review 4 weeks later.Results Thunderstorm (TS) cases were more likely to have a history of hay fever and grass pollen allergy, and less likely to be on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) prior to presentation. Cases and control groups had a similar degree of moderate to severe acute airway obstruction (P = 1.0). TS cases had elevated sputum eosinophils (14.8% of total cell count) compared to controls (1%, 2.6%, P 〈 0.01). TS cases had higher sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP; 11 686 ng/mL) compared to controls (1883, 3300, P = 0.02) acutely. TS cases had more cells positive for IL-5 (30%) compared to controls (1, 1.5%, P = 0.02). When adjusted for ICS use, TS cases had a risk ratio for elevated sputum eosinophils of 2.4 (1.23–4.69).Conclusion Thunderstorm asthma is characterized by airway inflammation with IL-5-mediated sputum eosinophilia and eosinophil degranulation. These results are consistent with allergen exposure as the cause of the exacerbation, and are consistent with the thunderstorm-induced grass pollen deluge as the cause of epidemic asthma after thunderstorms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Sputum induction is a safe and effective technique to study airway inflammation in stable asthma. However, it has the potential to induce bronchospasm and the safety and efficacy of the technique in acute asthma has not been determined.Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a protocol to induce sputum using isotonic saline in adults with acute exacerbations of asthma.Methods Adults (n = 47) presenting to the emergency room with acute asthma and an FEV1 〉 1.0 L underwent supervised sputum induction with 0.9% saline delivered by an ultrasonic nebuliser. Induction was ceased if there was a fall of 20% or greater from baseline FEV1.Results Subjects had moderate to severe exacerbations of acute asthma. An adequate sputum sample was obtained in 87% of subjects. Four subjects ceased induction because of symptom distress. There was a fall ≥ 20% in 28% of subjects. Bronchoconstriction was successfully reversed by salbutamol in all subjects. Predictors of significant bronchoconstriction were older age, use of ingested corticosteroids, and a requirement for high-dose nebulized salbutamol for the exacerbation. Maintenance long-acting β2-agonist therapy protected against bronchoconstriction during sputum induction.Conclusions Sputum induction in acute asthma using isotonic saline is highly efficacious in obtaining an adequate sputum sample. There is the potential for significant bronchoconstriction to occur but this can be managed safely with minimal discomfort to subjects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Keywords: OVARIAN-CANCER ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVE USE ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY ; NATURAL MENOPAUSE ; ISCHEMIC-HEART-DISEASE ; HORMONE-LEVELS ; NORWEGIAN WOMEN ; 37-YEAR FOLLOW-UP ; GRAND MULTIPAROUS WOMEN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Reproductive events are associated with important physiologic changes, yet little is known about how reproductive factors influence long-term health in women. Our objective was to assess the relation of reproductive characteristics with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. METHODS: The analysis was performed within the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective cohort study, which enrolled 〉500,000 women and men from 1992 to 2000, who were residing in a given town/geographic area in 10 European countries. The current analysis included 322,972 eligible women aged 25-70 years with 99 % complete follow-up for vital status. We assessed reproductive characteristics reported at the study baseline including parity, age at the first birth, breastfeeding, infertility, oral contraceptive use, age at menarche and menopause, total ovulatory years, and history of oophorectomy/hysterectomy. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for menopausal status, body mass index, physical activity, education level, and smoking status/intensity and duration. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 14,383 deaths occurred. The HR (95 % CI) for risk of all-cause mortality was lower in parous versus nulliparous women (0.80; 0.76-0.84), in women who had ever versus never breastfed (0.92; 0.87-0.97), in ever versus never users of oral contraceptives (among non-smokers; 0.90; 0.86-0.95), and in women reporting a later age at menarche (〉/=15 years versus 〈12; 0.90; 0.85-0.96; P for trend = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Childbirth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and a later age at menarche were associated with better health outcomes. These findings may contribute to the development of improved strategies to promote better long-term health in women.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26515238
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