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  • 1
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: In patients with Brugada syndrome, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the only reliable treatment to prevent sudden death though, in some cases, internal defibrillation may be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of defibrillation failure, with a focus on electrophysiologic characteristics. Methods: The study included 51 patients treated with ICD: 22 with Brugada syndrome and 29 with structural heart disease (SHD). The prevalence of defibrillation energy requirement precluding the programming of a 10-J safety margin, the mean right ventricular effective refractory period (ERP), and mean induced ventricular fibrillation cycle length (VFCL) from the stored ICD electrograms, were compared between the two patient groups. Results: High defibrillation requirements were observed in 18% of patients with Brugada syndrome versus 0% of patients with SHD. However, the patients with SHD had larger heart size than those with Brugada syndrome. Mean VFCL and mean ERP were both significantly shorter in patients with Brugada syndrome than in patients with SHD, and ERP and VFCL were significantly correlated. Conclusion: Patients with Brugada syndrome have a high prevalence of high defibrillation energy requirement, and short ventricular ERP and VFCL.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We analyzed the records of patients with carcinoma of the lower esophagus and cardia. Mediastinal node involvement was found in 43% of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower esophagus, and the 5-year survival after mediastinal dissection for patients with mediastinal node involvement was 27%. Mediastinal node involvement was found in 19% of the patients with adenocarcinoma of the cardia involving the esophagus, and no patients with mediastinal node involvement survived more than 2 years. When the patients had mediastinal node involvement, survival curves were significantly different. There were large differences between these tumors in terms of the extent of lymph node involvement and the survival of patients with mediastinal lymph node involvement. It is incorrect to consider the behavior of these tumors identical and to treat the conditions similarly.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Systemic granulomatous arteritis ; Epstein-Barr virus ; Virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome ; In situ hybridization ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  A 61-year-old woman initially presented with symptoms and findings reminiscent of infectious mononucleosis, and her illness then took a rapidly fatal course. Autopsy revealed widespread granulomatous arteritis, with multinucleated giant cells but without eosinophils and fibrinoid necrosis, affecting small arteries and arterioles and infiltration of haemophagocytic histiocytes into many organs. In situ hybridization with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific oligonucleotide probes showed positive signals in the infiltrating immune cells and epithelial and endothelial cells of the affected organs. EBV-associated haemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) with systemic granulomatous arteritis was diagnosed. From the immunophenotypes of the infiltrating immune cells, a possible role of CD4+ T-cells in the pathogenesis of this haemophagocytic syndrome and granulomatous vasculitis was suggested.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Stimulation of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) enhances neurite outgrowth and this response is inhibited by the primary alcohol ethanol. Because primary alcohols suppress the formation of the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) by phospholipase D (PLD), this observation prompted us to investigate whether PLD plays a role in the L1-mediated neurite outgrowth in CGNs. In the cerebellum of postnatal day 8 mice, PLD2 protein was abundantly expressed, while PLD1 expression was not detected. The L1-stimulated neurite outgrowth was inhibited by primary alcohols and by overexpression of lipase-deficient PLD2. Increases in cellular PA levels by direct PA application or overexpression of wild-type PLD2 mimicked the L1-dependent stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, it was found that L1 stimulation in CGNs increased PLD activity concomitantly with phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), both of which were inhibited by the MAP kinase-ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. These results provide evidence that PLD2 functions as a downstream signaling molecule of ERK to mediate the L1-dependent neurite outgrowth of CGNs, a mechanism that may be related to alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 〈list xml:id="l1" style="custom"〉1The baroreflex-mediated changes in plasma norepinephrine (NE) and heart period (RR interval) to phenylephrine (PE)-evoked pressor and nitroprusside (NP)-evoked depressor stimulations were studied in 19 patients with chronic essential hypertension, 12 with borderline hypertension and in 11 age-matched normal controls.2Intravenous infusion of PE at a rate of 0.25-1.0 |ig/kg/min induced dose-related increases in fhean arterial pressure (MAP) and in RR interval and a decrease in plasma NE. Similarly, NP infusion at a rate of 0.1-0.4 ug/kg/min evoked the opposite changes in each variable. The reflex sensitivity was defined as the slope of linear regression between the changes in RR interval and MAP (RR/MAP) and between those in plasma NE (% of the baselines) and MAP (%NE/MAP).3Both RR/MAP and %NE/MAP for pressor and depressor stimulations were reduced below values found in normal subjects, in both chronic and borderline hypertensives.4The values of %NE/MAP was negatively related to the basal plasma NE during falls in blood pressure (r= -0.401, P〈0.05).5The %NE/MAP may be a useful index of the sympathetic component of baro-reflex sensitivity. A decrease in %NE/MAP in hypertensive and borderline hypertensive patients suggests a blunted sensitivity of the sympathetic constrictor reflexes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution and number of CD2 (Coulter T11)+ cells, CD16 (Leu 11b)+ cells, Leu 7+ cells, CD8 (OKT 8)+ cells, CD11 (Leu 15)+ cells, CD4 (Leu 3a+3b)+ cells and Leu 10+ or Leu 14+ cells in the liver of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver cancer (MLC) were investigated using monoclonal antibodies and immunohistological methods. In the majority of those with HCC and MLC, CD8 (OKT 8)+, Leu 7+ and CD16 (Leu 11b)+ cells were present both in the tumor and non-tumor tissues. The CD8 (OKT 8)+ cells were more numerous than Leu 7+ and CD16 (Leu 11b)+ cells. No significant difference was observed in the distribution and number of Leu 7+ and CD16 (Leu 11b)+ cells, in any area, in both groups. The number of CD8 (OKT 8)+ cells predominated in the non-tumor area, in both groups. CD11 (Leu 15)+ cells and CD8 (OKT 8)+ cells were present in the ratio of 1:3 or 1:4. The number of CD4 (Leu 3a+3b)+ cells was less than that of CD8 (OKT 8)+ cells in both groups, especially in the tumor area. A few Leu 10+ or Leu 14+ cells were present in all areas, in both groups. In most cases of MLC, the CD8 (OKT 8)+ cells were absent in the tumor area. There was no correlation between the distribution and number of these cells and anti-tumor chemotherapy or non-specific immunotherapy.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cytorhodin-S, an anthracycline derivative, was covalently coupled to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) CA208, against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in order to achieve selective killing of a CEA-producing colon carcinoma cell line, COLO 205. The conjugate (15 molecules of drugs/antibody) retained substantial antibody activity as well as drug activity as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 24-h L1210 proliferation assay, respectively. Furthermore, the conjugate inhibited the growth of COLO 205 cells in a short-term cytostatic assay. This cytostatic effect of the immunoconjugate on COLO 205 cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment of the cells with unconjugated CA208 mAb. In addition, chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent, inhibited the cytostatic effect of the immunoconjugate, indicating the involvement of lysosomal enzymes in releasing drugs from the immunoconjugate. The antibody (CA208) was significantly incorporated into the cytoplasm of COLO 205 cells as demonstrated by immuno-electron microscopy. These in vitro results indicate that cytorhodin-S may be a good partner in immunoconjugates. However, in vivo animal experiments with the immunoconjugate revealed that the immunoconjugate was not so effective in prolonging survival. Thus, in vivo efficacy of this immunoconjugate remains to be further improved in application to cancer immunotherapy.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract: We study a kind of “restoration of isotropy” on the pre-Sierpiński. Let and be the effective resistances in the x and y directions, respectively, of the Sierpiński at the n th stage of its construction, if it is made of anisotropic material whose anisotropy is parametrized by the ratio of resistances for a unit square: . We prove that isotropy is weakly restored asymptotically in the sense that for all sufficiently large n the ratio is bounded by positive constants independent of r. The ratio decays exponentially fast when r≫ 1. Furthermore, it is proved that the effective resistances asymptotically grow exponentially with an exponent equal to that found by Barlow and Bass for the isotropic case r = 1.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Keywords: Key words Placenta accreta/increta ; Prior cesarean section ; Dilatation and curettage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  A review of the patients seen at the Department of Obstetrics at Dokkyo University Hospital who had suffered placenta accreta/increta in the past 18 years, was performed. There were 10 such cases out of 9,716 deliveries during this period. This incidence is higher than that which has been reported in other Western countries. Forty percent of the patients in our study had placenta accreta/increta accompanied by placenta previa or low lying; 30% had had a prior cesarean section (C/S); 70% had previously experienced dilatation and curettage (D & C); 80% had previously undergone a C/S and/or D & C; and 40% had a history of miscarriage. Three of the ten patients with placenta accreta/increta required a hysterectomy; 2 patients were successfully treated with hemostatic stitches on the endometrium; and the remaining 5 mild cases were treated with removal of the placenta, either manually or with the use of forceps. There was no case of maternal death. In 2 cases, neonatal asphyxia was noted, but the neonate immediately recovered.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Thiol drug ; Covalent binding ; Cytotoxicity ; ELISA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To clarify the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by captopril (Cp), interactions between tissue protein and Cp were studied by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The amide-linked adducts [hemocyanin from keyhole limpet-Cp adduct (KLH-Cp) and poly-l-Lys-Cp adduct (pLys-Cp)] using carbodiimide, and a disulfide-linked adduct [ovalbumin-Cp adduct (OVA-Cp)] were prepared. To determine the formation of the protein-Cp adduct, rabbit antisera against KLH-Cp was employed. The immunoreactivities with pLys-Cp and OVA-Cp against anti KLH-Cp sera were elevated when compared with the unmodified protein. With the inhibition ELISA, this antisera was useful for detecting the Cp disulfide-linked conjugate. In kidney cytosol, a high level of immunoreactivity was observed. Plasma and liver cytosol reactivities were similar, and ∼40% against kidney cytosol. Thus, a method for the detection of the Cp-protein adduct using ELISA has been established. Formation of the Cp-protein adduct was observed in rat plasma and in liver and kidney cytosol. These findings suggest the possibility that the formation of Cp-protein adduct is partially related to cytotoxicity in liver.
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