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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Respiratory syncytial virus infections ; Respiratory tract infections ; Hospitalization ; Length of stay ; Infant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a frequent cause of hospitalization among infants. To compare patient management in Europe, the United States, and Australia, we analyzed the charts of 1,563 pediatric patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed RSV lower respiratory infections during recent RSV seasons. Half of patients had been seen initially as outpatients. Median duration of hospitalization was 4 days in Australia, Finland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and 8 or 9 days in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. In a linear regression model that included clinical findings, underlying conditions, prematurity, and age, the leading variable associated with length of stay was “hospitalization in continental Europe”. This geographic factor conferred a 1.8-fold longer stay (95% CI: 1.7–1.9) than hospitalization elsewhere. Utilization of nine supportive therapies for RSV varied widely among hospitals, even within the same country. The individual hospital was strongly associated with the use of every therapy studied, independent of patient characteristics and clinical status. Conclusion Management of RSV patients varies markedly by country and hospital. Multicenter RSV trials that measure length of stay should standardize criteria for “readiness for discharge”. It may be appropriate to limit international trials to countries with similar median stays for RSV. Variability within multicenter trials could be further controlled by standardizing the use of other therapies and the diagnosis of complications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Bone mineral density — Osteoporosis — Parathyroid hormone analogs — Pelvis — Tibia — Trabecular bone — Vertebrae.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The native human parathyroid hormone, hPTH-(1-84), and certain carboxyl truncated analogs such as hPTH-(1-34) and even smaller fragments such as hPTH-(1-31)NH2, [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)hPTH-(1-31)NH2, and hPTH-(1-30)NH2 stimulate femoral trabecular and cortical bone growth in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Here we show that when injected once daily for 6 weeks starting 2 weeks after OVX in doses of 1 or 2 nmol/100 g of body weight, hPTH-(1-31)NH2, [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)hPTH-(1-31)NH2, and hPTH-(1-34)NH2 prevented the loss of trabecular volume in the L5 vertebrae induced by OVX. In fact, by the end of the sixth week of injections (i.e., the eighth week after OVX) the fragments had increased the volume and trabecular thickness significantly above the values in vehicle-injected sham-operated rats. hPTH-(1-30)NH2 can stimulate vertebral bone growth as much as the larger fragments, but 10–25 times more of it was needed to do so. The same daily doses of hPTH-(1-31)NH2, [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)hPTH-(1-31)NH2, and hPTH-(1-34)NH2 also raised the trabecular volume and thickness in the L5 vertebrae of rats well above the values in vehicle-treated animals when the injections were started 9 weeks after OVX. This restoration of trabecular bone in the L5 vertebrae in estrogen-deprived animals was accompanied by a significant increase in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the L1–L4 vertebrae and tibias. However, there was no significant drop in the pelvic BMD in the estrogen-deprived animals and the effects of hPTH-(1-31)NH2, [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-(Lys) hPTH-(1-31)NH2, and hPTH-(1-34)NH2 on the pelvic BMD were equivocal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The cell nuclei within primary and nodal secondaries of colorectal carcinomas were analysed morphometrically in order to identify a primary subpopulation with similar characteristics to cells involved in lymphatic metastasis. No significant difference in nuclear area was seen between cell populations of the primary and secondary. However, a regional variation in mean nuclear area was present, suggesting a relationship between cells at the invasion front and in early nodal metastasis. This subpopulation differed from the cell populations of the primary and more advanced secondaries. These results are consistent with the existence of a morphometrically identifiable metastatic subpopulation within the invasion front of colorectal carcinoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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