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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Gene 107 (1991), S. 197-204 
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: Pre-mRNA splicing ; flanking regions ; gene family ; polymerase chain reaction ; promoter ; pseudogene ; recombinant DNA ; regulatory element ; spliceosome ; uridylate-rich small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: apoplastic enzyme ; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ; single-stranded conformational polymorphism ; β-Fructosidase
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Key words Membrane microtubes ; Membrane elasticity ; Phospholipid translocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Observations over extended times of a lipid microtube (tether) formed from a lecithin vesicle have shown that under constant external loads the tether exhibits a continuous slow growth. It is considered that this growth is a consequence of the net transbilayer movement of phospholipid molecules in a direction which relieves the membrane strain resulting from the elastic deformation of the vesicle. The elastic deformation mode responsible for this effect is identified as the relative expansion of the two membrane layers reflecting the non-local contribution to membrane bending. An equation for the consequent rate of transbilayer movement of phospholipid molecules is derived. The dynamic behavior of the system is modeled by including frictional contributions due to interlayer slip and Stokes drag on the glass bead used to form the tether. The general numerical solution reveals a complex dependence of the tether growth rate on the system parameters and a continuous increase in the rate of tether growth at long times. Closed form expressions approximating the system behavior are derived and the conditions under which they can be applied are specified. Modeling the mechanically-driven lipid transport as a simple, stochastic, thermal process, allows the rate of lipid translocation to be related to the equilibrium transbilayer exchange rate of phospholipid molecules. Consideration of experimental results shows that the time constant for mechanically-driven translocation is shorter than the time for diffusion-driven translocation by approximately two orders of magnitude, indicating that lipid translocation is not a simple diffusive process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Barley ; Genome mapping ; Stripe rust ; Leaf rust ; BYDV ; Resistance Gene Analog Polymorphism ; QTL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Stripe rust, leaf rust, and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) are important diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare L). Using 94 doubled-haploid lines (DH) from the cross of Shyri x Galena, multiple disease phenotype datasets, and a 99-marker linkage map, we determined the number, genome location, and effects of genes conferring resistance to these diseases. We also mapped Resistance Gene Analog Polymorphism (RGAP) loci, based on degenerate motifs of cloned disease resistance genes, in the same population. Leaf rust resistance was determined by a single gene on chromosome 1 (7H). QTLs on chromosomes 2 (2H), 3 (3H), 5 (1H), and 6 (6H) were the principal determinants of resistance to stripe rust. Two- locus QTL interactions were significant determinants of resistance to this disease. Resistance to the MAV and PAV serotypes of BYDV was determined by coincident QTLs on chromosomes 1 (7H), 4 (4H), and 5 (1H). QTL interactions were not significant for BYDV resistance. The associations of molecular markers with qualitative and quantitative disease resistance loci will be a useful information for marker-assisted selection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Barley ; Microsatellites ; Linkage map ; Genetic similarity (GS) ; Polymorphism information content (PIC)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  By searching the EMBL DNA sequence database, we were able to develop 39 new, database-derived barley microsatellites. Eighteen of these EMBL microsatellites were mapped either to the interspecific barley map Lerche×BGRC41936 (L×41), the Igri×Franka map (I×F, Graner et al. 1991), or to both maps simultaneously. In addition, all 39 EMBL microsatellites were assigned to individual barley chromosomes by PCR screening of wheat barley addition lines. Both studies verified a random distribution of the microsatellites within the barley genome. Subsequently, 22 EMBL microsatellites were used to assess the genetic similarity among a set of 28, mainly German, barley cultivars and two wild form accessions. Spring and winter cultivars could be easily differentiated using the first coordinate of a principal coordinate analysis. Whereas the group of spring barley cultivars appeared rather homogeneous, winter barley cultivars could be divided into three subgroups. Two H. v. ssp. spontaneum accessions were included in the assessment of genetic similarity. They were placed among the winter barley cultivars. Based on the assessment of the 30 barley cultivars and accessions, the polymorphism information content (PIC) of each EMBL microsatellite has been calculated. The average PIC value among the EMBL microsatellites was equal to 0.38, which ascertains the value of these microsatellites as a genetic tool in barley genome research projects.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Barley ; BAC library ; P-loop genes ; Resistance-gene analog (RGA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Modern cultivated barley is an important cereal crop with an estimated genome size of 5000 Mb. To develop the resources for positional cloning and structural genomic analyses in barley, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the cultivar Morex using the cloning enzyme HindIII. The library contains 313344 clones (816 384-well plates). A random sampling of 504 clones indicated an average insert size of 106 kbp (range=30–195 kbp) and 3.4% empty vectors. Screening the colony filters for chloroplast DNA content indicated an exceptionally low 1.5% contamination with chloroplast DNA. Thus, the library provides 6.3 haploid genome equivalents allowing a 〉99% probability of recovering any specific sequence of interest. High-density filters were gridded robotically using a Genetix Q-BOT in a 4×4 double-spotted array on 22.5-cm2 filters. Each set of 17 filters allows the entire library to be screened with 18432 clones represented per filter. Screening the library with 40 single copy probes identified an average 6.4 clones per probe, with a range of 1–13 clones per probe. A set of resistance-gene analog (RGA) sequences identified 121 RGA-containing BAC clones representing 20 different regions of the genome with an average of 6.1 clones per locus. Additional screening of the library with a P-loop disease resistance primer probe identified 459 positive BAC clones. These data indicate that this library is a valuable resource for structural genomic applications in barley.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Potato ; Dihaploid ; Parthenogenesis ; Fertilization ; Chromosome elimination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Seventeen potato dihaploids, produced by pollinating the tetraploid (2n = 48) cv ‘Pentland Crown’ with pollen from Solanum phureja (2n = 24) dihaploid inducer clones, were studied. Since dihaploids are thought to develop parthenogenetically from unfertilized ovules they were expected to be euploid (2n = 24), but somatic chromosome counts showed that 15 of the 17 dihaploids were aneusomatic. Ten of the clones were predominantly diploid (2n = 24) with a proportion of hyperploid cells that contained 25 or 26 chromosomes. Five of the dihaploids contained variable numbers of triploid cells (2n = 36). RFLP analysis was used to determine whether the additional chromosomes were from S. phureja or S. tuberosum. Unique hybridizing fragments present in S. phureja but not in ‘Pentland Crown’ were identified. These S. phureja-specific restriction fragments were present in some of the dihaploid offspring of ‘Pentland Crown’. Of the 5 clones that contained triploid cells 4 had S. phureja type banding. Four of the 10 aneusomatic clones that contained hyperploid cells had the unique S. phureja hybridizing fragments. We propose that ovules of ‘Pentland Crown’ were fertilized by pollen from S. phureja and that the aneusomatic clones were derived from triploid zygotes from which some of the S. phureja chromosomes were eliminated. We consider that this is an additional mechanism of dihaploid formation in potato.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cocoa ; RAPDs ; DNA ; Polymorphism ; Genetic diversity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been used to characterise cocoa clones representing the three main cultivated subpopulations: Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario. The use of single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence resulted in the selective amplification of DNA fragments which were unique to the individual cocoa clones studied. The use of a single primer allowed each of the clones evaluated to be unequivocally characterised. The application of RAPD markers for the evaluation of germplasm and cocoa improvement programmes are discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Disease resistance ; Hordeum vulgare ; Marker-assisted selection ; Molecular markers ; PCR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The genetic structure of the rym5 locus was studied in a population comprising 391 doubled-haploid lines that were evaluated for resistance to two strains of Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus (BaYMV-1, 2) and to Barley Mild Mosaic Virus (BaMMV). The absence of recombinants that are able to differentiate between the reaction to these different bymoviruses provides evidence that rym5 is a complex locus, which is either composed of several closely linked genes or of an allelic series of a single gene. For marker-assisted introgression of this locus into adapted barley germplasm, a CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence) and a microsatellite marker were developed that flank the gene at distances of 0.8 and 1.3% recombination, respectively.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Hordeum ; Grain ; Isozymes ; Ribosomal DNA ; Genetic adaptation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Grain isozyme and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variability was examined in Hordeum spontaneum populations sampled from 27 geographical sites in Israel. Considerable phenotypic variability was observed with variants of ADH1, EST3, EST10, BMY1 and WSP detected, which are not available in the H. vulgare gene pool. Seven new rDNA phenotypes were detected in the H. spontaneum populations. Shannon's index of diversity was used to partition the total phenotypic variation into between and within population components. Most of the variation occurred between H. spontaneum populations. The distribution of both grain isozyme and rDNA phenotypes was non-random and correlated with a range of ecogeographical factors. In particular, the G phenotype of BMY1 was restricted to the Negev Desert and Dead Sea regions of Israel. Over 78% of the variation in the frequency of this particular phenotype could be explained by the number of rainy days per year and mean temperature in January. This suggests that variation at this locus or at loci linked to it may be of adaptive significance and of value in the introgression of genes controlling abiotic stress tolerance from H. spontaneum into the H. vulgare gene pool.
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