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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Early feeding ; Low birth weights ; Different caloric intake ; Serum bilirubin ; Serum protein ; Weight gain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In einer prospektiven Studie wurden 75 low birth weights (Geburtsgewicht under 2500 g) 2 Ernährungsgruppen mit unterschiedlicher Nahrungsmenge und Calorienzufuhr alternierend zugeordnet. Bei allen wurde eine Frühfütterung durchgeführt. Hinsichtlich Geburtsgewicht, Gestationsalter und intrauterinem Wachstum waren beide Gruppen vergleichbar. Bei der Auswertung der Daten wurden Kovariantenkorrekturen angewandt. Die hochcalorisch ernährte Gruppe zeigte eine ausgezeichnete Gewichtszunahme, der initiale Gewichtsverlust war geringer, das Geburtsgewicht wurde früher wieder erreicht als in der Vergleichsgruppe. Blutzucker- und Serumeiweißkonzentrationen verhielten sich in beiden Gruppen ähnlich. Die Mittelwerte der Serumbilirubinkonzentrationen waren in der reichlich ernährten Gruppe deutlich niedriger, doch waren die Unterschiede nicht signifikant. Die frühzeitige hochcalorische orale Ernährung wurde gut vertragen. Sie ist bei low birth weights — wenn keine Kontraindikationen bestehen — der parenteralen Ernährung vorzuziehen.
    Notes: Abstract A prospective study on oral feeding was started in 75 low birth weights (below 2500 g) with adapted milk. Early feeding was given in two groups with different feeding volume and caloric intake. The infants were grouped alternately. Both groups were comparable concerning birth weight, gestational age, and intrauterine growth. Due to partially different variances, covariate correction was applied to analysis of the data. The high caloric group had excellent weight gain, the maximum weight loss was less, and birth weight was regained earlier than in the control group. Blood sugar and serum protein were similar in both groups. Mean serum bilirubin levels were lower in the group with high caloric intake, but differences failed to be significant. Early high caloric feeding was well tolerated and is preferable to parenteral nutrition in low birth weights.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Vitamin B12 ; Selective vitamin B12 malabsorption ; Proteinuria ; Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome ; Funicular myelosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei einem zum Zeitpunkt der Untersuchung 10 Jahre alten Mädchen mit selektiver Vitamin B12-Malabsorption und Proteinurie wurden eingehende gastroenterologische und nephrologische Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Die Patientin wies auch nach mehrjähriger, regelmäßiger Vitamin B12-Substitution noch Restzeichen einer funiculären Myelose auf, die durch elektrodiagnostische Untersuchungen objektiviert werden konnten. Die wiederholte Prüfung der Vitamin B12-Resorption mit dem Schilling-Test zeigte eine Vitamin B12-Malabsorption. Antikörper gegen Intrinsic-Faktor und Parietalzellen konnten im Serum nicht nachgewiesen werden. Die Mukosa des terminalen Ileums wies licht- und elektronenmikroskopisch keine pathologischen Veränderungen auf. Die exokrine Pankreasfunktion sowie das pH und die Calcium-Konzentrationen im Duodenalsaft waren im Bereich der Norm. Ein generelles Malabsorptions-Syndrom konnte ausgeschlossen werden. Mit verschiedenen Methoden wurde eine hochselective glomeruläre Proteinurie nachgewiesen. Die Inulin-Clearance war leicht, die PAH-Clearance deutlich erniedrigt. Es bestand sonst kein weiterer Anhalt für eine Störung der Tubulusfunktion. Die Nierenbiopsie ergab lichtmikroskopisch Zeichen einer minimal proliferierenden, intercapillären Glomerulonephritis (minimal changes). Elektronenmikroskopisch wurde eine partielle Verschmelzung der Glomerulumdeckzellen gefunden. Eine Familiarität des Syndroms konnte durch Untersuchung der Eltern und einer Schwester der Patientin ausgeschlossen werden.
    Notes: Abstract In a girl 10 years of age with selective vitamin B12 malabsorption associated with proteinuria and residual symptoms of funicular myelosis an extensive study of the intestinal and nephrologic functions was done. Repeated Schilling tests pointed to a malabsorption pattern of vitamin B12. Gastric acid and intrinsic factor secretion as well as gastric morphology were normal. There were no antibodies against intrinsic factor and parietal cells in serum. Ileal mucosa showed on light- and electron-microscopy no pathologic changes. Pancreatic exocrine function as well as pH and calcium concentrations in the lumen of the gut were within the normal range. A general malabsorption syndrome could be excluded. A high selective glomerular proteinuria was found through different methods. Inulin clearance was slightly reduced, PAH clearance, however, markedley so. There was no further evidence for renal tubular dysfunction. Renal biopsy showed a minimal proliferative intercapillary glomerulonephritis (minimal changes). In electron-microscopic studies a fusion of a part of the foot processes of the podocytes was found. No familial history of the syndrome could be demonstrated in our patient.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: IgA-Glomerulonephritis ; Haematuria ; Proteinuria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nineteen out of 83 children with asymptomatic haematuria were classified as having IgA glomerulonephritis, characterized by diffuse mesangial deposition of IgA in the absence of systematic disease. Different histological patterns were observed: i.e., minor glomerular lesions (5 cases), focal and segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis (8 cases) and diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (6 cases). Recurrent gross haematuria is the clinical hallmark of the disease. Proteinuria was present in 14 children and exceeded 1 g/m2/day in 3 patients. Clinico-pathological correlations showed a close relation between the degree of proteinuria and the histological lesions. Serum IgA levels were elevated in 3 children. Glomerular filtration rate remained above 80 ml/min/1.73 m2 in a 1 to 9 year follow-up.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 394 (1982), S. 235-254 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Nephronophthisis ; Chronic sclerosing tubulo-interstitial nephropathy ; Associated defect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The clinical and morphological findings are described in 27 children with nephronophthisis. Seventeen children were considered as sporadic cases. In 10 familial cases the presumed mode of inheritance was autosomal recessive. The clinical picture was rather uniform: polyuria-polydipsia, hyposthenuria, anemia, growth retardation, and azotemia with progressive renal failure. Six patients presented with tapeto-retinal degeneration. In a further seven children other ocular changes were detected. Two female siblings showed additional non-renal manifestations: mental retardation, pulmonary emphysema, skeletal anomalies, and congenital hepatic fibrosis. Renal histology displayed a chronic sclerosing tubulo-interstitial nephropathy with extensive tubular atrophy and dedifferentiation. Medullary cysts were frequently found in end-stage kidneys. Immunofluorescence was either non-specific or completely negative. On electron microscopy, the tubular basement membrane changes predominated: thickening, lamellation, splitting, and deposition of microfibrils within the increased basement membrane substance. Detailed light- and electron microscopic findings were non-specific but the overall morphologic picture was characteristic and even diagnostic in conjunction with the clinical presentation. A recurrence of nephronophthisis in transplanted kidneys has not been observed. The pathogenesis of nephronophthisis is obscure but with respect to the morphologic findings a primary or secondary tubular basement membrane defect seems very likely. Our experience suggests that nephronophthisis is a frequent cause of chronic renal failure in children and commonly associated with non-renal abnormalities. To avoid the separation of different syndromes presenting with a uniform renal disease but various non-renal manifestations, we suggest that the term “nephronopthisis complex” be used.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 25 (1981), S. 91-93 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 68.55
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In situ time- and space-resolved transmission measurements have been used to investigate the crystal growth during laser irradiation of amorphous Ge films. For dwell times longer than 5 ms, microcrystallization processes comparable to conventional thermal annealing are observed, whereas for irradiation times shorter than 5 ms, shell like crystallites, 20 μm long, are obtained. The results from the pulsed measurements agree with corresponding experiments performed under cw-annealing conditions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.55.H ; 42.60.B
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We report on the operation of a thallium photodissociation laser with an active medium in the form of a thin layer on a quartz wall. Laser emission has been obtained with layer thicknesses below 100 μm. This gas laser seems to be feasible with an active volume as small as 10−1 to 10−2 mm3.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 38 (1985), S. 165-169 
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 34 ; 42.55
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Conditions for the operation of a Tl photodissociation laser, in view of power optimization, have been determined. A crucial parameter is found to be quenching of the upper laser level. A value for the quenching cross-section of the 72 S 1/2 Tl state by the TlI molecules of 2×10−14 cm2 has been measured.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 51 (1990), S. 418-420 
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.80.Mv ; 42.80.Ks ; 85.50.Ly
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We report on the frequency spectrum of phase fluctuations of a two fiber interferometer in a normal laboratory environment. A feedback system in connection with a piezo regulator is used for compensation of the fluctuations. The resulting stability of the compensator has been measured.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.81.-i ; 42.60.Jf ; 87.80.fs ; 79.20.Ds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A sapphire micro-lens system in combination with a zirconium-fluoride (ZrF4) fibre has been designed and constructed as a surgical tool for focusing Er:YAG-laser radiation. It both refocuses the laser radiation transmitted through a 350 µm core fibre to a spot diameter of 570 µm at a working distance of 7.6 mm, and protects the distal fibre end from damage. An accurate and uncomplicated visualization of the focus position of the erbium-laser beam is realized by coupling a HeNe aiming laser into the cladding of the fibre. In vitro cutting experiments reveal the high cutting precision with minimal thermal damage of the surrounding tissue and the high damage resistance of the system. It may render the use of the erbium laser possible in a wide range of endoscopic applications.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.55.Rz ; 42.60.Lh ; 78.45. + h
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The influence of Excited-State Absorption (ESA) on the green laser transition and the overlap of Ground-State Absorption (GSA) and ESA for 970 nm upconversion pumping in erbium is investigated in Er3+ : BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9. Results are compared to Er3+ : LiYF4. In Er3+: BaY2F8, a good overlap between GSA and ESA is found at 969 nm in one polarization direction. The emission cross section at 550 nm is a factor of two smaller than in LiYF4. In Cs3Er2Br9, the smaller Stark splitting of the levels shifts the wavelengths of the green emission and ESA from4 I 1 3/2 off resonance. It enhances, however, ground-state reabsorption. The emission cross section at 550 nm is comparable to LiYF4. Upconversion leads to significant green fluorescence from2 H 9/2. A significant population of the4 I 11/2 level and ESA at 970 nm are not present under 800 nm pumping.
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